Infectious Complications of Human Retroviruses and Human Retroviruses as Infectious Complications

  • Jonathan W. M. Gold
Conference paper

Abstract

As of June 1, 1988, The World Health Organization had received reports of 96,433 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and had estimated a worldwide cumulative total of over 200,000 cases. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control reported a cumulative total of 63,726 cases of whom 56% were known to have died. Such grim statistics grossly underestimate the magnitude of the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Current estimates are of between 5 and 10 million people infected worldwide, with a potential of a 10-fold increase in the next 5 years. Individuals infected with HIV-1 are reservoirs of infection for others and live with what now appears to be a very high probability of developing AIDS (CDC, 1988a; Kreiss et al. 1986; Mann, 1988; Quinn et al. 1986).

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patient Secondary Syphilis Genital Ulcer Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammann AJ, Schiffman G, Abrams D (1984) B-cell immunodeficiency in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. JAMA 251: 1447–1449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Brun-Vezinet F, Rouzious C, Rozenbaum W, Montagnier L (1983) Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ). Science 220: 868–871.Google Scholar
  3. Bartholemew C, Blattner W, Cleghorn F (1987) Progression to AIDS on homosexual men co-infected with HIV and HTLV-I in Trinidad. Lancet 2: 14–96.Google Scholar
  4. Bell ET, Rotterdam HZ, Tapper ML (1985) Simultaneous shigellosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In: Abstracts from the International Conference on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, April 14–17, Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, p 49.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard EM, Schmitt HJ, Lifton A, Seltzer M, Dickmeyer MS, Armstrong D (1988) Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with aerosol pentamidine. Abstract 7169. IVth International AIDS Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, June 12–16.Google Scholar
  6. Bigbee TD, Margolskee D, Curtis JL, Michael PF, Sheppard D, Hadley WK, Hopewell PC (1986) The usefulness of induced sputum in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 133: 515–518.Google Scholar
  7. CDC (1987) (Revision) Surveillance Case Definition for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. MMWR (Suppl.) 36:3S–15S.Google Scholar
  8. CDC (1988a) AIDS Weekly Surveillance Report, United States AIDS Program, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, May 30.Google Scholar
  9. CDC (1988b) Tuberculosis, final data, United States, 1986. 36: 817–820.Google Scholar
  10. CDC (1988c) Measles in HIV-infected Children, United States. MMWR 37: 183–186.Google Scholar
  11. Clavel F, Mansinho K, Chamaret S, Guetard D, Favier V, Nina J, Santos-Ferreira M-O, Champalimaud JL, Montagnier L (1987) Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 infection associated with AIDS in West Africa. N Engl J Med 316: 1180–1185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fischl MA, Dickinson GM, la Voie L (1988) Safety and efficacy of sulfamothoxazole and trimethoprim chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. JAMA 259: 1185–1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, Shearer GM, Kaplan M, Haynes BF, Palker TJ, Redfield R, Oleske J, Safai B, White G, Foster P, Markham PD (1984) Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses ( HTLV-II-I) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science 224: 500–502.Google Scholar
  14. Gessain A, Barin F, Vernant JC, Gout O, Maurs L, Calender A, DeThe G (1985) Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 2: 407–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gold JWM (1985) Clinical spectrum of infections in patients with HTLVIII-associated diseases. Canc Res (Suppl) 45: 4652S - 4654S.Google Scholar
  16. Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, Weisman JD, Fan PT, Wolf RA, Saxon A (1981) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 305: 1425–1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harper ME, Kaplan MH, Marselle LM (1986) Concomitant infection with HTLV-I and HTLV-III in a patient with T8 lymphoproliferative disease. N Engl J Med 315: 1073–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hawkins CC, Gold JWM, Whimbey E, Kiehn TE, Brannon P, Cammarata R, Brown AE, Armstrong D (1986) Treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium aviumintracellulare infections in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 105: 184–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hino S, Doi H, Yoshikuni H, Sugiyama H, Ishimaru T, Yamabe T, Tsuji Y, Miyamoto T (1987) HTLV-I carrier mothers with high titer antibody are at risk as a source of infection. Japan J Cancer 78: 1156–1158.Google Scholar
  20. Johns DR, Tierney M, Felsenstein D (1987) Alteration in the natural history of neurosyphilis by concurrent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 316: 1569–1572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, Miyoshi I, Blayney D, Golde D, Gallo RC (1982) A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus ( HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. Science 218: 571–573.Google Scholar
  22. Kondo T, Nonaka H, Miyamoto N, Yoshida R, Marsue Y, Ohguchi Y, Inouye H, Komoda H, Hinuma Y, Hanaoka M (1985) Incidence of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and its familial clustering. Int J Cancer 35: 749751.Google Scholar
  23. Kovacs JA, Kovacs AA, Polis M, Wright WC, Gill VJ, Tuazon CU, Gelmann EP, Lane HC, Longfield R, Overturf G, Macher AM, Fauci AS, Parrillo JE, Bennett JE, Masur H (1985) Cryptococcosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 103: 533–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kovacs JA, Ng VL, Masur H, Leoung G, Lane HC, Ognibene FP, Shelhamer J, Parillo JE, Gill VJ (1988) Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: Improved detection in sputum, with use of monoclonal antibodies. N Engl J Med 318: 589–593.Google Scholar
  25. Kreiss JK, Koech D, Plummer FA (1986) AIDS virus infection in Nairobi prostitutes. Spread of the epidemic to East Africa. N Engl J Med 314: 414–418.Google Scholar
  26. Lane HC, Masur H, Edgar LC, Whalen G, Rook AH, Fauci AS (1983) Abnormalities of B-cell activation and immunoregulation in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 309: 453–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luft BJ, Remington JS (1988) Toxoplasmic encephalitis. J Infect Dis 157: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mann J (1988) The Global Picture of AIDS. IVth International Conference on AIDS, Stockholm, Sweden, June 14.Google Scholar
  29. Manzari V, Gismondi A, Barillari G, Morrone S, Modesti A, Albonici L, De Marchis L, Fazio V, Gradilone A, Zani M, Frati L,’ Santoni A (1987) HTLV-V: A new human retrovirus isolated in a Tac-negative T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Science 238: 1581–1583.Google Scholar
  30. Masur H, Michelis MA, Greene JB, Onorato I, Vande Stouwe RA, Holzman RS, Wormser G, Brettman L, Lange M, Murray HW, Cunningham-Rundles S (1981) An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: Initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction. N Engl J Med 305: 1431–1438.Google Scholar
  31. Masur H, Lane HC, Palestine A, Smith PD, Manischewitz H, Stevens G, Fujikawa L, Macher AM, Nussenblatt R, Baird B, Menill M, Wittek A, Quinnan LV, Parrillo JE, Rookh H, Eron LJ, Poretz DM, Goldenberg RJ, Fauli A, Gelmann EP (1986) Effect of 90(1,3-dihydroxy-2propoxymethyl)guanine on serious cytomegalovirus disease in eight immunosuppressed homosexual men. Ann Intern Med 104: 41–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matheron S, Lepretre A, Ngovan P, et al (1988) Visceral leishmaniasis during HIV infection. Abstract 7213: IVth International AIDS Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, June 12–16.Google Scholar
  33. Minamoto GY, Gold JWM, Scheinberg DA, Hardy WD, Chein N, Zuckerman BS, Reich L, Dietz K, Gee T, Hoffer J, Mayer K, Gabrilove J, Clarkson B, Armstrong D (1988) Infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type-I in patients with leukemia. N Engl J Med 318: 219–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Okochii K, Sato H (1985) Adult T-cell leukemia virus, blood donors and transfusions: Experience in Japan. In: Dodd RY, Barker LF (eds) Infection, Immunity and Blood Transfusion. New York, Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp 245–256.Google Scholar
  35. Osarne M, Izumo S, Igata A, Matsumoto M, Matsumoto T, Sonoda S, Tara M, Shibata Y (1986) Blood transfusion and HTLV-I associated myelopathy. Lancet 2: 104–105.Google Scholar
  36. Perlman DM, Ampel NM, Schifman RB, Cohn DL, Patton CM, Aguirre ML, Wang WL, Blaser MJ (1988) Persistent Campylobacter jejuni infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ). Ann Intern Med 108: 540–546.Google Scholar
  37. Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA, Minna JD, Gallo RC (1980) Detection and isolation of type-C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 7415–7419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Quinn TC, Mann JM, Curran JW (1986) AIDS in Africa: An epidemiologic paradigm. Science 234: 955–963.Google Scholar
  39. Robert-Guroff M, Weiss SH, Giron JA, Jennings AM, Ginzburg HM, Margolis IB, Blattner WA, Gallo RC (1986) Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I, -II, -III in intravenous drug abusers from an AIDS endemic region. JAMA 255: 3133–3137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scitovsky AA, Rice DP (1987) The cost of AIDS. Issues Sci Technol 4: 61–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, Brown AE, Kornfeld SJ, Gold J, Hassett J, Hirschman SZ, Cunningham-Rundles C, Adelsberg BR, Parham DM, Siegel M, Cunningham-Rundles S, Armstrong D (1981) Severe acquired immunodeficiency in homosexual males, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions. N Engl J Med 305: 1439–1444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Simberkoff MS, El-Sadr W, Schiffman G, Rahal JJ Jr (1984) Streptococcus pneumoniae infections and bacteremia in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, with report of a pneumococcal vaccine failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 1174–1176.Google Scholar
  43. Snider WD, Simpson DM, Nielsen S, Gold JWM, Metroka CE, Posner JB (1983) Neurological complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Analysis of 50 patients.Ann Neurol 14: 403–418.Google Scholar
  44. Tajima K, Kuroishi T (1985) Estimation of incidence rates of ATL among ATLV carriers in Kyushu, Japan. Jap J Clin Oncol 15: 423–430.Google Scholar
  45. Tapper ML, Rotterdam HZ, Lerner CW, Al’Khafaji K, Seitzman PA (1984) Adrenal necrosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 100: 239–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tramont EC (1987) Editorial: Syphilis in the AIDS era. N Engl J Med 316: 1600–1601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tuberculosis, Final Data–United States, 1986 (1988) MMWR 36: 817–820.Google Scholar
  48. Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Sagawa K (1977) Adult T-cell leukemia: Clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 50: 481–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Urmacher C, Myskowski P, Ochoa M, Kris M, Safai B (1982) Outbreak of Kaposi’s sarcoma with cytomegalovirus infection in young homosexual men. Am J Med 72: 569–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walmsley SL, Chew SE, Read H, Vellend H, Salit I, Rachli A, Fanning MM (1988) Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate ( Foscarnet ). J Infect Dis 157: 569–572.Google Scholar
  51. Whimbey E, Gold JWM, Polsky B (1986) Bacteremia and fungemia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 104: 511–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Williams AE, Fang CT, Slamon DJ, Poiesz BJ, Sandler SG, Darr WF, Shulman G, McGouann EI, Douglas DK, Bowman RJ (1988) Seroprevalence and epidemiologic correlates of HTLV-I infection in United States blood donors. Science 240: 643–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Witt DJ, Craven DE, McCabe W (1987) Bacterial infections in adult patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS) and AIDS related complex. Am J Med 82: 900–906.Google Scholar
  54. Wong B, Gold JWM, Brown AE (1984) Central nervous system toxoplasmosis in homosexual men and parenteral drug abusers. Ann Intern Med 100: 36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yoshida M, Miyoshi I, Hinuma Y, Lange M, Fried R, Grielo M, Mildvan D, Girion J, Tapper ML, Lerner CW, Armstrong D (1982) Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from cell lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in the disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2031–2035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan W. M. Gold
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Disease ServiceMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations