Significant developments continue in the management of all types of stones regardless of location in the urinary tract. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) was initially confined to fragmenting relatively small stones (less than 1 cm) localized in the kidney. This technology has since been applied to include both larger stones and those located in all portions of the ureter as well. Although complications rise with increases in stone burden, and fragmentation rates fall when lower ureteral stones are treated, modifications in equipment, instrumentation, and technique continue to improve the over-all success rate. Similarly, ureteroscopy and stone manipulation and/or fragmentation were initially confined to stones impacted in the lower ureter; stones localized in all parts of the ureter are now being managed with these techniques and, although success rates diminish with the more proximal stones, modifications in the instrumentation of techniques have also been associated with improved results.
KeywordsUreteral Stone Ureteral Stenting Ureteral Calculus Potassium Citrate Stone Burden
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