Intracorporeal Laser-Induced Shock-Wave Lithotripsy
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has introduced a tremendous change in the management of patients with urinary stones. Patient morbidity has decreased as compared to other methods of stone removal, and only 10–25% of all patients need subsequent stone-particle manipulation by secondary percutaneous or transurethral methods. Impacted or very hard calculi in the ureter, especially when they are not surrounded by fluid, can only be crushed in about 40–50% of cases in situ, while the rest of the stone material has to be flushed up to the kidney and be disintegrated there. This procedure has to be done with small catheters or an endoscope since direct access to the stone is mandatory. Thus, there is still need for ureteroscopic manipulation.
KeywordsShock Wave Laser Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Ureteral Stone Ureteral Calculus
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