Studies of idiopathic Ca urolithiasis suggest that in stone formation, macromolecular components of urine and organic matrix may behave both as promoters and inhibitors of crystallization. In general, when present at low levels in supersaturated solutions of the mineralizing salt, inhibitor molecules may adsorb at active growth sites on the developing crystals, thereby reducing the rate of both growth and dissolution reactions. However, if the density of adsorbed moieties on the crystal surface is sufficiently low, the growth steps may advance over the inhibitor molecules and incorporate them into the crystal lattice. Small ion constituents such as citrate, magnesium, and pyrophosphate are also capable of inhibiting the rate of mineral formation but have not been found to promote nucleation.
KeywordsHuman Serum Albumin Seed Crystal Constant Composition CaOx Crystal Mineralization Inhibitor
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