Maternal Employment and Sex Typing in Early Adolescence

Contemporaneous and Longitudinal Relations
  • Nancy L. Galambos
  • Anne C. Petersen
  • Kathleen Lenerz
Part of the Springer Studies in Work and Industry book series (SSWI)

Abstract

One of the most remarkable sociocultural changes since World War II is the steady and substantial rise of women joining the labor force. With nearly 68% of married mothers with school-age children working outside of the home (Hayghe, 1986), maternal employment has clearly become a modal aspect of life in American families. The movement of mothers into the labor market constituted a departure from those behaviors that have been long considered to be inherent in the feminine sex role (Smith, 1979). As such, employed mothers crossed the boundaries drawn by shared societal expectations for appropriate behavior in women. It is this tension between cultural expectations for mothers and their actual choices over the last several decades that has stimulated much speculation and research about the lives of children whose mothers are employed.

Keywords

Sixth Grade Eighth Grade Maternal Employment Occupational Aspiration Psychological Androgyny 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almquist, E. M. (1974). Sex stereotypes in occupational choice: The case for college women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almquist, E. M., & Angrist, S. S. (1971). Role model influences on college women’s career aspirations. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 17, 263–279.Google Scholar
  3. Altman, S. L., & Grossman, F. K. (1977). Women’s career plans and maternal employment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1, 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez, W. F. (1985). The meaning of maternal employment for mothers and their perceptions of their three-year-old children. Child Development, 56, 350–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacon, C., & Lerner, R. M. (1975). Effects of maternal employment status on the development of vocational-role perception in females. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 126, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. W., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 65–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banducci, R. (1967). The effect of mother’s employment on the achievement, aspirations, and expectations of the child. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 46, 263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baruch, G. K. (1972). Maternal influences upon college women’s attitudes toward women and work. Developmental Psychology, 6, 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baruch, G. K. (1974). Maternal career-orientation as related to parental identification in college women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 4, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. C. (1980). On the well-being of adult women. In L. A. Bond & J. C. Rosen (Eds.), Competence and coping during adulthood (pp. 240–257). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  11. Bern, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bern, S. L. (1975). Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 634–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Block, J. H. (1973). Conceptions of sex role: Some cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives. American Psychologist, 28, 512–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Crouter, A. C. (1982). Work and family. In S. B. Kamerman & C. D. Hayes (Eds.), Families that work: Children in a changing world (pp. 39–83). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  15. Chandler, T. A., Sawicki, R. F., & Stryffeler, J. M. (1981). Relationship between adolescent sexual stereotypes and working mothers. Journal of Early Adolescence, 1, 72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression!correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Crockett, L., Losoff, M., & Petersen, A. C. (1984). Perceptions of the peer group and friendship in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4, 155–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. D’Amico, R. J., Haurin, R. J., & Mott, F. L. (1983). The effects of mothers’ employment on adolescent and early adult outcomes of young men and women. In C. D. Hayes & S. B. Kamerman (Eds.), Children of working parents: Experiences and outcomes (pp. 130–219). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  19. Deaux, K. (1984). From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade’s research on gender. American Psychologist, 39, 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delias, M., Gaier, E. L., & Emihovich, C. A. (1979). Maternal employment and selected behaviors and attitudes of preadolescents and adolescents. Adolescence, 14, 579–589.Google Scholar
  21. Douvan, E. (1963). Employment and the adolescent. In F. I. Nye & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), The employed mother in America (pp. 142–164). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  22. Douvan, E., & Adelson, J. (1966). The adolescent experience. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Elder, G. H., Jr. (1974). Children of the great depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Elder, G. H., Jr., & Maclnnis, D. J. (1983). Achievement imagery in women’s lives from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farel, A. M. (1980). Effects of preferred maternal roles, maternal employment, and so-ciodemographic status on school adjustment and competence. Child Development, 51, 1179–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Galambos, N. L. (1985). Maternal role satisfaction, mother-adolescent relations, and sex-typing in early adolescent girls and boys. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  27. Galambos, N. L., & Petersen, A. C. (1986). Maternal role satisfaction, mother-adolescent relations, and sex-typing in early adolescence. Unpublished manuscript, The Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  28. Galambos, N. L., Petersen, A. C, Richards, M., & Gitelson, I. B. (1985). The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA): A study of reliability and validity. Sex Roles, 13, 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilroy, F. D., Talierco, T. M., & Steinbacher, R. (1981). Impact of maternal employment on daughters’ sex-role orientation and fear of success. Psychological Reports, 49, 963–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gold, D., & Andres, D. (1978a). Comparisons of adolescent children with employed and nonemployed mothers. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 24, 243–253.Google Scholar
  31. Gold, D., & Andres, D. (1978b). Developmental comparisons between ten-year-old children with employed and nonemployed mothers. Child Development, 49, 75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gold, D., & Andres, D. (1978c). Relations between maternal employment and development of nursery school children. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 10, 116–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gold, D., Andres, D., & Glorieux, J. (1979). The development of francophone nursery school children with employed and nonemployed mothers. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 11, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hansson, R. O., Chernovetz, M. E., & Jones, W. H. (1977). Maternal employment and androgyny. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2, 76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hayghe, H. (1986, February). Rise in mothers’ labor force activity includes those with infants. Monthly Labor Review, 109, 43–45.Google Scholar
  36. Hefner, R., Rebecca, M., & Oleshansky, B. (1975). Development of sex-role transcendence. Human Development, 18, 143–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hock, E. (1980). Working and nonworking mothers and their infants: A comparative study of maternal caregiving characteristics and infant social behavior. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 26, 79–101.Google Scholar
  38. Hodge, R. W., Siegel, P. M., & Rossi, P. H. (1965). Occupational prestige in the United States, 1925–63. American Journal of Sociology, 70, 286–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoffman, L. W. (1963). Mother’s enjoyment of work and effects on the child. In F. I. Nye & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), The employed mother in America (pp. 95–105). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  40. Hoffman, L. W. (1974). Effects of maternal employment on the child: A review of the research. Developmental Psychology, 10, 204–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoffman, L. W. (1977). Changes in family roles, socialization, and sex differences. American Psychologist, 32, 644–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoffman, L. W. (1979). Maternal employment: 1979. American Psychologist, 34, 859–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoffman, L. W. (1980). The effects of maternal employment on the academic attitudes and performance of school-aged children. School Psychology Review, 9, 319–335.Google Scholar
  44. Huston, A. C. (1983). Sex-typing. In M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 387–467). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Huston-Stein, A., & Higgins-Trenk, A. (1978). Development of females from childhood through adulthood: Career and feminine role orientations. In P. B. Baltes (Ed.), Lifespan development and behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 257–296). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kagan, J. (1958). The concept of identification. Psychological Review, 65, 296–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kendall, P. C., Lerner, R. M., & Craighead, W. E. (1984). Human development and intervention in childhood psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 71–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. King, K., Mclntyre, J., & Axelson, L. J. (1968). Adolescents’ views of maternal employment as a threat to the marital relationship. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 30, 633–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lamb, M. E. (1982). Maternal employment and child development: A review. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), Nontraditional families: Parenting and child development (pp. 45–69). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Lamb, M. E., Chase-Lansdale, L., & Owen, M. T. (1979). The changing American family and its implications for infant social development: The sample case of maternal employment. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The child and its family (pp. 267–291). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lerner, J. V., & Galambos, N. L. (1985). Maternal role satisfaction, mother-child interaction, and child temperament: A process model. Developmental Psychology, 21, 1157–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lerner, J. V., & Galambos, N. L. (1986). The child’s development and family change: The influence of maternal employment on infants and toddlers. In L. P. Lipsitt & C. Rovee-Collier (Eds.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 4, pp. 39–86). Hillsdale, NJ: ABLEX.Google Scholar
  53. Lerner, R. M. (1984). On the nature of human plasticity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lerner, R. M., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1981). Individuals as producers of their development: Conceptual and empirical issues. In R. M. Lerner & N. A. Busch-Rossnagel (Eds.), Individuals as producers of their development: A life-span perspective (pp. 1–36). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  55. Lerner, R. M., & Hultsch, D. F. (1983). Human development: A life-span perspective. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  56. Lipman-Blumen, J. (1972). How ideology shapes-vomen’s lives. Scientific American, 226(1), 34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maccoby, E. (1958). Effects upon children of their mothers’ outside employment. In National Manpower Council, Work in the lives of married women (pp. 150–172). Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the National Manpower Council. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Macke, A. S., & Morgan, W. R. (1978). Maternal employment, race, and work orientation of high school girls. Social Forces, 57, 187–204.Google Scholar
  59. Meier, H. C. (1972). Mother-centeredness and college youths’ attitudes toward social equality for women: Some empirical findings. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 34, 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Montemayor, R. (1984). Maternal employment and adolescents’ relations with parents, siblings, and peers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13, 543–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Montemayor, R., & Clayton, M. D. (1983). Maternal employment and adolescent development. Theory Into Practice, 22, 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mussen, P. H. (1969). Early sex-role development. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 707–731). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  63. Owen, M. T., Easterbrooks, M. A., Chase-Lansdale, L., & Goldberg, W. A. (1984). The relation between maternal employment status and the stability of attachments to mother and to father. Child Development, 55, 1894–1901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pearlman, V. A. (1981). Influences of mother’s employment on career orientation and career choice of adolescent daughters. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4657A–4658A.Google Scholar
  65. Petersen, A. C. (1984). The early adolescence study: An overview. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4, 103–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Petersen, A. C., Schulenberg, J. E., Abramowitz, R. H., Offer, D., & Jarcho, H. D. (1984). A self-image questionnaire for young adolescents (SIQYA): Reliability and validity studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13, 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pleck, J. H. (1975). Masculinity-femininity: Current and alternative paradigms. Sex Roles, 1, 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (1982). Testing an undertested comparison: Maternal effects on sons’ and daughters’ attitudes toward women in the labor force. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 349–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Powell, K. (1963). Personalities of children and child-rearing attitudes of mothers. In F. I. Nye & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), The employed mother in America (pp. 125–141). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  70. Richardson, R. A., Galambos, N. L., Schulenberg, J. E., & Petersen, A. C. (1984). Young adolescents’ perceptions of the family environment. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4,131–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Robinson, B. E., & Green, M. G. (1981). Beyond androgyny: The emergence of sex-role transcendence as a theoretical construct. Developmental Review, 1, 247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosenthal, D., & Hansen, J. (1981). The impact of maternal employment on children’s perceptions of parents and personal development. Sex Roles, 7, 593–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Roy, P. (1963). Adolescent roles: Rural-urban differentials. In F. I. Nye & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), The employed mother in America (pp. 165–181). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  74. Schulenberg, J. E., Asp, C. E., & Petersen, A. G (1984). School from the young adolescent’s perspective: A descriptive report. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4, 107–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, R. E. (1979). The movement of women into the labor force. In R. E. Smith (Ed.), The subtle revolution: Women and work (pp. 1–29). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  76. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  77. Stein, A. H. (1973). The effects of maternal employment and educational attainment on the sex-typed attributes of college females. Social Behavior and Personality, 1, 111–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stephan, C. W., & Corder, J. (1985). The effects of dual-career families on adolescents’ sex-role attitudes, work and family plans, and choices of important others. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 47, 921–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stuckey, M. F., McGhee, P. E., & Bell, N. J. (1982). Parent-child interaction: The influence of maternal employment. Developmental Psychology, 18, 635–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tangri, S. S. (1972). Determinants of occupational role innovation among college women. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 177–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thornton, A., Alwin, D. F., & Camburn, D. (1983). Causes and consequences of sex-role attitudes and attitude change. American Sociological Review, 48, 211–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vanfossen, B. E. (1977). Sexual stratification and sex-role socialization. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 563–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vogel, S. R., Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., & Rosenkrantz, P. S. (1970). Maternal employment and perception of sex roles among college students. Developmental Psychology, 3, 384–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Waldman, E. (1983, December). Labor force statistics from a family perspective. Monthly Labor Review, 106, 16–19.Google Scholar
  85. Weeks, M., Wise, G. W., & Duncan, C. (1984). The relationship between sex-role attitudes and career orientations of high school females and their mothers. Adolescence, 19, 595–607.Google Scholar
  86. Woods, M. B. (1972). The unsupervised child of the working mother. Developmental Psychology, 6, 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Worell, J. (1978). Sex roles and psychological well-being: Perspectives on methodology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 777–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Worell, J. (1981). Life-span sex roles: Development, continuity, and change. In R. M. Lerner & N. A. Busch-Rossnagel (Eds.), Individuals as producers of their development: A life-span perspective (pp. 313–347). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  89. Yarrow, M. R., Scott, P., de Leeuw, L., & Heinig, C. (1962). Child-rearing in families of working and nonworking mothers. Sociometry, 25, 122–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy L. Galambos
    • 1
  • Anne C. Petersen
    • 2
  • Kathleen Lenerz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of EducationUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations