Systems and Distinctions; Duality and Complementarity

  • Joseph A. Goguen
  • Francisco J. Varela
Part of the International Federation for Systems Research International Series on Systems Science and Engineering book series (IFSR, volume 7)


The world does not present itself to us neatly divided into systems, subsystems, environments, and so on. These are divisions which we make ourselves, for various purposes, often subsumed under the general purpose evoked by saying “for convenience.” It is evident that different people find it convenient to divide the world in different ways, and even one person will be interested in different systems at different times, for example, now a cell, with the rest of the world its environment, and later the postal system, or the economic system, or the atmospheric system.


Natural System Emergent Property Autonomous Behavior Reductionist Attitude Cognitive Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph A. Goguen
  • Francisco J. Varela

There are no affiliations available

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