Toward Understanding Race Difference in Autonomic Reactivity

A Proposed Contextual Model
  • Norman B. Anderson
  • Maya McNeilly
  • Hector Myers
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

One of the most consistent findings in the cardiovascular epidemiologic literature is the higher resting blood pressure and greater prevalence of essential hypertension among black compared to white adults (Folkow, 1982, 1987). The higher rate of hypertension among blacks has been documented for males between the aged of 25 and 64 years and for females aged 25 through 74 years (Obrist, 1981). Not surprisingly, given the extraordinarily high rate of hypertension morbidity among blacks, this group also suffers disproportionately higher rates of hypertension-related mortality from heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, and renal disease (Matthews, Weiss, Detre, Dembroski, Falkner, Manuck, & Williams, 1986; Obrist, 1981).

Keywords

Chronic Stress Racial Difference Vascular Reactivity Cardiovascular Reactivity Sympathetic Nervous System Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpert, B. S., Dover, E. V., Booker, D. L., Martin, A. M., & Strong, W. B. (1981). Blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in healthy children—black versus white. Journal of Pediatrics, 99, 556–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrosioni, E., Costa, F. V., Montebugnoli, L., Borghi, C., & Margnani, B. (1981). Intralymphocytic sodium concentration as an index of response to stress and exercise in young subjects with borderline hypertension. Clinical Science, 61(7), 25.Google Scholar
  3. Ambrosioni, E., Costa, F. V., Borghi, C., Montebugnoli, L., Giordani, M. F., & Magnani, B. (1982). Effects of moderate salt restriction on intralymphocytic sodium and pressor response to stress in borderline hypertension. Hypertension, 4, 789–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, N. B. (1989). Racial differences in stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and hypertension: Current status and substantive issues. Psychological Bulletin, 105(11), 89–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, N. B., Williams, R. B., Jr., Lane, J. D., Haney, T., Simpson, S., & Houseworth, S. J. (1986). Type A behavior, family history of hypertension, and cardiovascular responses among black women. Health Psychology, 5, 393–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, N. B., Williams, R. B., Lane, I. D., Houseworth, S., Muranaka, H. (1987). Parental history of hypertension and cardiovascular responses in young black women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 723–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, N. B., Lane, J. D., Monou, H., Williams, R. B., Jr., & Houseworth, S. J. (1988a). Racial differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental arithmetic. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 6, 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, N. B., Lane, J. D., Muranaka, M., Williams, Jr., R. B., & Houseworth, S. J. (1988b). Racial differences in blood pressure and forearm vascular responses to the cold face stimulus. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, N. B., Myers, H., Pickering, T., & Jackson, J. (1989a). Hypertension in blacks: Psychosocial and biological perspectives. Journal of Hypertension, 7, 161–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson, N. B., Lane, J. D., Taguchi, F., & Williams, R. B., Jr. (1989b). Patterns of cardiovascular responses to stress as a function of race and parental hypertension in men. Health Psychology, 8(5), 525–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson, N. B., Lane, J. D., Taguchi, F., Williams, R. B., Jr., & Houseworth, S. J. (1989c). Race, parental history of hypertension, and patterns of cardiovascular reactivity in women. Psychophysiology, 26(1), 39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson, N. B., McNeilly, M., & Myers, H. (1991). Autonomic reactivity and hypertension in blacks: A review and proposed model. Ethnicity & Disease, 1, 154–170.Google Scholar
  13. Arensman, F. W., Trieber, F. A., Gruber, M. P., & Strong, W. B. (1989). Exercise induced differences in cardiac output, blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance in a healthy biracial population of ten-year-old boys. American Journal Disorders of Children, 143, 212–216.Google Scholar
  14. Armstead, C. A., Lawler, K. A., Gorden, G., Cross, J., & Gibbons, J. (1989). Relationship of racial Stressors to blood pressure responses and anger expression in black college students. Health Psychology, 8(5), 541–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bassett, J. R., Strand, F. L., & Cairncross, K. D. (1978). Glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone and related polypeptides on myocardial sensitivity to noradrenaline. European Journal of Pharmacology, 49, 243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baum, A., Gatchel, R. J., & Schaeffer, M. A. (1983). Emotional, behavioral, and physiological effects of chronic stress at Three Mile Island. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 565–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berenson, G. S., Voors, A. W., Webber, L. S., Dalferes, E. R., Jr., & Harsha, D. W. (1979). Racial differences of parameters associated with blood pressure levels in children—the Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism, 28(12), 1218–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blackwell, J. E. (1975). The black community: Diversity and unity. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, V., & Harreil, J. (1982). The relationship among Type A behavior, styles used in coping with racism, and blood pressure. Journal of Black Psychology, 8, 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, R., & David, R. (1986). The biological concept of race and its application to public health and epidemiology. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 11(1), 97–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davidson, L. M., Fleming, R., & Baum, A. (1987). Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island. Journal of Human Stress, 13, 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dimsdale, J. E., Graham, R., Ziegler, M. G., Zusman, R., & Berry, C. C. (1987). Age, race, diagnosis, and sodium effects on the pressor response to infused norepinephrine. Hypertension, 10, 564–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dixon, V. J. (1976). World views and research methodology. In L. King, F. J. Dixon, & W. Nobles (Eds.), African philosophy: Assumptions and paradigms for research on black persons Los Angeles: Fanon Center.Google Scholar
  24. Durel, L. A., Carver, C. S., Spitzer, S. B., Llabre, M. M., Weintraub, J. K., Saab, P. G., & Schneiderman, N. (1989). Associations of blood pressure with self-report measures of anger and hostility among black and white men and women. Health Psychology, 8(5), 557–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Falkner, B., & Kushner, H. (1989). Race differences in stress-induced reactivity in young adults. Health Psychology, 8(5), 613–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Falkner, B., Onesti, G., & Angelakos, E. T. (1981). Effect of salt loading on the cardiovascular response to stress in adolescents. Hypertension, 3 (II), II195–II199.Google Scholar
  27. Falkner, B., Kushner, H., Khalsa, D. K., Canessa, M., & Katz, S. (1986). Sodium sensitivity, growth and family history of hypertension in young blacks. Journal of Hypertension, 4(S), S381–S383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Farley, R. (1984). Blacks and whites: Narrowing the gap?. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Farley, R., & Allen, W. R. (1989). The color line and the quality of life in America, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fleming, I., Baum, A., & Wess, L. (1987a). Social density and perceived control as mediators of crowding stress in high-density residential neighborhoods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 899–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleming, I., Baum, A., Davidson, L. M., Rectanus, E., & McArdle, S. (1987b). Chronic stress as a factor in psychologic reactivity to challenge. Health Psychology, 6, 221–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Folkow, B. (1982). Physiological aspects of primary hypertension. Physiological Review, 62, 347.Google Scholar
  33. Folkow, B. (1987). Psychosocial and central nervous influences in primary hypertension. Circulation, 76(1), 110–119.Google Scholar
  34. Fredrikson, M. (1986). Racial differences in reactivity to behavioral challenges in essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 4, 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fredrikson, M., & Matthews, K. A. (1990). Cardiovascular responses to behavioral stress and hypertension: A meta-analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 30–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Friedman, M., Byers, S. O., Diamant, J., & Rosenman, R. H. (1975). Plasma catecholamine response of coronary prone subjects (Type A) to a specific challenge. Metabolism, 24, 205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gentry, W. D., Chesney, A. P., Gary, H. E., Jr., Hall, P. P., & Harburg, E. (1982). Habitual anger-coping styles. I. Effect on mean blood pressure and risk for essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Glass, B., & Li, C. C. (1953). The dynamics of racial intermixture: An analysis based on the American Negro. American Journal of Human Genetics, 5, 1–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldstein, D. S. (1983). Plasma catecholamines and essential hypertension: An analytical review. Hypertension, 5, 86–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graham, T. W., Kaplan, B. H., Cornoni-Huntley, J. C., James, S. A., Becker, C., Hames, C. G., & Heyden, S. (1978). Frequency of church attendance and blood pressure elevation. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1(1), 37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grim, C. E., Luft, F. C., Miller, J. Z., Meneely, G. R., Battarbee, H. D., Hames, C. G., & Dahl, L. K. (1980). Racial differences in blood pressure in Evans County, Georgia: Relationship to sodium and potassium intake and plasma renin activity. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 83, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grim, C., Luft, F., Weinberger, M., Miller, J., Rose, R., & Christia, J. (1984). Genetic, familial, and racial influences on blood pressure control systems in man. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 14, 453–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gringnolo, A., Koepke, J. P., & Obrist, P. A. (1982). Renal function, heart rate and blood pressure during exercise and shock avoidance in dogs. American Journal of Physiology, 242, R482.Google Scholar
  44. Guillemin, R., Vargo, T., Rossier, J., Minick, S., Ling, N., Rivier, C., Vale, W., & Bloom, F. (1977). Beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropin are secreted concomitantly by the pituitary gland. Science, 197, 1367–1369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harburg, E., Erfurt, J. C., Hauenstein, L. S., Chape, C., Schull, W. J., & Schork, M. A. (1973a). Socioecological stress, suppressed hostility, skin color and black-white male blood pressure: Detroit. Psychosomatic Medicine, 35, 276–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Harburg, E., Erfurt, J., Hauenstein, L., Chape, C., Schull, W., & Schork, M. (1973b). Socioecological stress, suppressed hostility, skin color, and black-white blood pressure: Detroit. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 26, 595–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harburg, E., Blakelock, E. H., & Roper, P. J. (1979). Resentful and reflective coping with arbitrary authority and blood pressure: Detroit. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 189–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Harris, W. H. (1982). The harder we run: Black workers since the Civil War. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  49. Hiernaux, J. (1975). The people of Africa. New York: Scribner’s Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hohn, A. R., Riopel, D. A., Keol, J. E., Loadholt, C. B., Margolius, H. S., Halushka, P. V., Privitera, P. J., Webb, J. G., Medley, E. S., Schuman, S. H., Rubin, M. I., Pantell, R. H., & Braustein, M. L. (1983). Childhood familial and racial differences in physiologic and biochemical factors related to hypertension. Hypertension, 5, 56–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group (1977). Race, education and prevalence of hypertension. American Journal of Epidemiology, 106, 351–361.Google Scholar
  52. James, S. A. (1985). Psychosocial and environmental factors in black hypertension. In W. Hall, E. Saunders, & N. Schulman (Eds.), Hypertension in blacks: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment (pp. 132–143). Chicago: Year Book Publishers.Google Scholar
  53. James, S. A., & Kleinbaum, D. G. (1976). Socioecological stress and hypertension-related mortality rates in North Carolina. Journal of Public Health, 66, 354–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. James. S. A., Hartnett, S. A., & Kalsbeek, W. D. (1983). John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 259–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. James, S. A., LaCroix, A. Z., Kleinbaum, D. G., & Strogatz, D. S. (1984). John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. II. The role of occupational Stressors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 259–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. James, S. A., Strogatz, D. S., Wing, S. B., & Ramsey, D. L. (1987). Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and hypertension in blacks and whites. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 664–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jaynes, G. D., & Williams, R. M., Jr. (1989). A common destiny: Blacks and American society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, E. H. (1989). Cardiovascular reactivity, emotional factors, and home blood pressure in black males with and without a parental history of hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 390–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson, E. H., Schork, N. J., & Spielberger, C. D., (1978). Emotion and familial determinants of elevated blood pressure in black and white adolescent females. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 731–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnson, E. H., Spielberger, C. D., Worden, T. J., & Jacobs, G. A. (1987). Emotional and familial determinants of elevated blood pressure in black and white adolescent males. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 287–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Katz, P., & Taylor, D. (Eds.). (1988). Eliminating racism. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kessler, R. C., & Neighbors, H. W. (1986). A new perspective on the relationships among race, social class, and psychological distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 107–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kochman, T. (1981). Black and white styles in conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  64. Koepke, J. P., & DiBona, G. F. (1985). High sodium intake enhances renal nerve and antinatriuretic responses to stress in SHR. Hypertension, 7, 357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Koepke, J. P., Light, K. C., & Obrist, P. A. (1983). Neural control of renal excretory function during behavioral stress in conscious dogs. American Journal of Physiology, 245, R251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Koolen, M. I., & Van Brummelen, P. (1984). Adrenergic activity and peripheral hemodynamics in relation to sodium sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension, 6, 820–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kurland, G. S., & Freeberg, A. S. (1951). The potentiating effect of ACTH and of cortisone on pressor response to intravenous infusion of L-nor-epinephrine. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 78, 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lawrence, G. (Ed.). (1981). The black male. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Lewontin, R. C. (1973). The appointment of human diversity. Evolutionary Biology, 6, 381–398.Google Scholar
  70. Lewontin, R. C., Rose, S., & Kamin, L. J. (1984). Not in our genes: Biology, ideology, and human nature. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  71. Light, K. C. (1987). Psychosocial precursors of hypertension: Experimental evidence. Circulation, 76(I), 167–176.Google Scholar
  72. Light, K. C., & Sherwood, A. (1989). Race, borderline hypertension, and hemodynamic responses to behavioral stress before and after beta-adrenergic blockage. Health Psychology, 8, 577–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Light, K. C., Koepke, J. P., Obrist, P. A., & Willis, P. W. (1983). Psychological stress induces sodium and fluid retention in men at high risk for hypertension. Science, 220, 429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Light, K. C., Obrist, P. A., Sherwood, A., James, S., & Strogatz, D. (1987). Effects of race and marginally elevated blood pressure on cardiovascular responses to stress in young men. Hypertension, 10, 555–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lohmeier, T. E., & Carroll, R. G. (1985). Adrenocortical hormones and their interaction with angiotensin II and catecholamines in the production of hypertension. In F. Mantero, E. G. Biglieri, J. W. Funder, & B. A. Scoggins (Eds.), The adrenal gland and hypertension, 27, (pp. 159–176). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  76. Luft, F. C., Grim, C. E., Fineberg, N., & Weinberger, M. H. (1979a). Effects of volume expansion and contraction in normotensive whites, blacks, and subjects of different ages. Circulation, 59, 643–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Luft, F. C., Rankin, L. I., Henry, D. P., Bloch, R., Grim, C. E., Weyman, A. E., Murry, R. H., & Weinberger, M. H. (1979b). Plasma and urinary norepinephrine values at extremes of sodium intake in normal man. Hypertension, 1, 261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Luft, F., Grim, C., & Weinberger, M. (1985). Electrolyte and volume homeostasis in blacks. In W. Hall, E. Saunders, & N. Shulman (Eds.), Hypertension in blacks: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment (pp. 115–131). Chicago: Yearbook Medical.Google Scholar
  79. McAdoo, W. G., Weinberger, M. H., Miller, J. Z., Fineberg, N. S., & Grim, C. E. (in press). Race and gender influence hemodynamic responses to psychological and physical stimuli. Journal of Hypertension.Google Scholar
  80. McCarthy, R., Horwatt, K., & Konarska, M. (1988). Chronic stress and sympathetic-adrenal medullary responsiveness. Social Science in Medicine, 26, 333–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McCubbin, J. A., Surwit, R. S., & Williams, R. B. (1985). Endogenous opiates, stress reactivity, and risk for hypertension. Hypertension, 7, 808–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McCubbin, J. A., Surwit, R. S., & Williams, R. B. (1988). Opioid dysfunction and risk for hypertension: Naloxone and blood pressure responses during different types of stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 8–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McCubbin, J. A., Surwit, R. S., Williams, R. B., Nemeroff, C. B., & McNeilly, M. (1989). Altered pituitary hormone response to naloxone in hypertension development. Hypertension, 14, 636–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McNeilly, M., & Zeichner, A. (1989). Neuropeptide and cardiovascular responses to intravenous catheterization in normotensive and hypertensive blacks and whites. Health Psychology, 5(5), 487–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mark, A. L., Lawton, W. J., Abboud, F. M., Fitz, A. E., Cannor, W. E., & Heistad, D. D. (1975). Effects of high and low sodium intake on arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance in borderline hypertension. Circulation Research, 36(I), 1194–1198.Google Scholar
  86. Matthews, K. A., & Rakaczky, C. J. (1986). Familial aspects of the Type A behavioral pattern and physiologic reactivity to stress. In T. H. Schmidt, T. M. Dembroski, & G. Blumchen (Eds.), Biological and psychological factors in cardiovascular disease (pp. 228–245). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Matthews, K., Weiss, S., Detre, T., Dembroski, T. M., Falkner, B., Manuck, S. B., & Williams, R. B. (Eds.). (1986). Handbook of stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  88. Morrell, M. A., Myers, H., Shapiro, D., Goldstein, I., & Armstrong, M. (1988). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological Stressors in black and white normotensive males. Health Psychology, 7, 479–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mourant, A. E. (1983). Blood relations: Blood groups and anthropology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Murphy, J. K., Alpert, B. S., Moses, D. M., & Somes, G. W. (1986). Race and cardiovascular reactivity: A neglected relationship. Hypertension, 8, 1075–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Murphy, J. K., Alpert, B. S., Walker, S. S., & Willey, E. S. (1988a). Race and cardiovascular reactivity: A replication. Hypertension, 11, 308–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Murphy, J. K., Alpert, B. S., Willey, E. S., & Somes, G. W. (1988b). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in healthy children. Psychophysiology, 25, 144–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Myers, H. F., Shapiro, D., McClure, F., & Daims, R. (1989). Impact of caffeine and psychological stress on blood pressure in black and white men. Health Psychology, 5(5), 597–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nicholls, M. G., Kiows W, W., Zweifler, A. J., Julius, S., Schork, M. A., & Greenhouse, J. (1980). Plasma norepinephrine variations with dietary sodium intake. Hypertension, 2, 29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nilsson, H., Fly, D., Friberg, P., Kalstrom, G. E., & Folkow, B. (1985). Effects of high and low sodium diets on the resistance vessels and their adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibre control in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats. Acta Physiolagica Scandinavica, 125, 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nobles, W. (1974). Africanity: Its role in black families. Black Scholar, (June), 10-16.Google Scholar
  97. Nobles, W. (1980a). African philosophy: Foundations for black psychology. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  98. Nobles, W. (1980b). Extended self: Rethinking the so-called Negro self concept. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  99. Obrist, P. A. (1981). Cardiovascular psychophysiology: A perspective. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pollitzer, W. S. (1958). The Negroes of Charleston, SC: A study of hemoglobin types, serology, and morphology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 16, 241–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rankin, L. I., Luft, F. C., Henry, D. P., Gibbs, P. S., & Weinberger, M. H. (1981). Sodium intake alters the effects of norepinephrine on blood pressure. Hypertension, 3, 650–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reed, T. (1969). Caucasian genes in American Negroes. Science, 165, 762–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rossier, J., French, E. D., Rivier, C., Ling, N., Guillemin, R., & Bloom, R. E. (1977). Foot-shock induced stress increases B-endorphin levels in blood but not brain. Nature, 270, 618–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rowlands, D., De Givanni, J., McLeay, R., Watson, R., Stallard, T., & Littler, W. (1982). Cardiovascular response in black and white hypertensives. Hypertension, 4, 817–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schaeffer, M. A., & Baum, A. (1984). Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 227–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Schomig, A., Luth, B., Dietz, R., & Gross, F. (1976). Changes in vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to vasoconstrictor agents induced by corticosteroids, adrenalectomy and differing salt intake in rats. Clinical Science Molecular Medicine, 51(3), 61.Google Scholar
  107. Smith, E. J. (1981). Cultural and historical perspectives in counseling blacks. In D. W. Sue (Ed.), Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (pp. 141–185). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  108. Stamler, R., Stamler, J., Riedlinger, W. F., Algera, G., & Roberts, R. H. (1979). Family (parental) history and prevalence of hypertension: Results of a nationwide screening program. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241, 43–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Strand, F. L., & Smith, C. M. (1980). LPH, ACTH, MSH and motor system. Pharmacological Therapy, 11, 509–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Strickland, T. L., Myers, H. F., & Lahey, B. B. (1989). Cardiovascular reactivity with caffeine and stress in black and white normotensive females. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 381–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Takeshita, A., Imaizumi, T., Ashihara, T., & Nakamura, M. (1982). Characteristics of responses to salt loading and deprivation in hypertensive subjects. Circulation Research, 51, 457–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tischenkel, N. J., Saab, P. G., Schneiderman, N., Nelesen, R. A., Pasin, R. D., Goldstein, D. A., Spitzer, S. B., Woo-Ming, R., & Weidler, D. J. (1989). Cardiovascular and neurohumoral responses to behavioral challenge as a function of race and sex. Health Psychology, 8(5), 503–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Trieber, F. A., Musante, L., Strong, W. B., & Levy, M. (1989). Racial differences in young children’s blood pressure. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 143, 720–723.Google Scholar
  114. Trieber, F. A., Musante, L., Braden, D., Arensman, F., Strong, W. B., Levy, M., & Leverett, S. (1990). Racial differences in hemodynamic responses to the cold face stimulus in children and adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 286–296.Google Scholar
  115. Voors, A. W., Webber, L. S., & Berenson, G. S. (1980). Racial contrasts in cardiovascular response tests for children from a total community. Hypertension, 2, 686–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weinberger, M., Luft, F., & Henry, D. (1982). The role of the SNS in the modulation of sodium excretion. Clinical Experimental Hypertension, A4, 719–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. White, J. L. (1980). Toward a black psychology. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  118. Whitworth, J. A., Coghlan, J. P., Denton, D. A., Hardy, K. J., & Scoggins, B. A. (1979). Effect of sodium loading and ACTH on blood pressure of sheep with reduced renal mass. Cardiovascular Research, 13, 9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wilson, W. (1973). Power, racism, and privilege. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  120. Wilson, W. J. (Ed.). (1989). The ghetto underclass: Social science perspectives. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 501, 8–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman B. Anderson
    • 1
  • Maya McNeilly
    • 2
  • Hector Myers
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, Social and Health SciencesDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California at Los AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryCharles R. Drew University of Medicine and ScienceLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations