The Reoviridae pp 425-504 | Cite as

Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Viruses

  • Christopher C. Payne
  • Peter P. C. Mertens
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

The discovery that cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) contain a tensegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome confirmed that they have many biochemical characteristics in common with members of the Reoviridae (Kalmakoff et al., 1969; Fujii-Kawata et al., 1970). They are most clearly distinguished from other members of this family in having virus particles that lack a double capsid layer and that are commonly occluded within large proteinaceous inclusion bodies (“polyhedra”) during replication (Matthews, 1979). In addition, their host range appears to be restricted to arthropods, and there is only one report of a CPV infection outside the Insecta (Federici and Hazard, 1975). The limited studies that have been carried out also suggest that they are genetically distinct from other genera within the Reoviridae (Black and Knight, 1970; Martinson and Lewandowski, 1974; Kodama and Suzuki, 1973). For these reasons, they have been classified as a distinct genus, but no precise generic name has yet been allocated (Matthews, 1979).

Keywords

Virus Particle Genome Segment Minus Strand Insect Virus Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aizawa, K., and Iida, S., 1963, Nucleic acids extracted from the virus polyhedra of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus), J. Insect Pathol. 5:344.Google Scholar
  2. Allaway, G.P., 1982, Infectivity of some occluded insect viruses, Ph.D. thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, R.M., and May, R.M., 1981, The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 291:451.Google Scholar
  4. Andreadis, T.G., 1981, A new cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from the saltmarsh mosquito, Aedes cantator (Diptera: Culicidae), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 37:160.Google Scholar
  5. Anthony, D.W., Hazard, E.I., and Crosby, S.W., 1973, A virus disease in Anopheles quadrimaculatus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aratake, T., Kayamura, T., and Watanabe, H., 1974, Inactivation of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus by gut-juice of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 41:41 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  7. Arella, M., Belloncik, S., Barray, S. and Devauchelle, G., 1981, Dual infection of a lepidopteran cell line with the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus and the Chilo iridescent virus, Abstracts of the 5th International Congress for Virology, Strasbourg, p. 427.Google Scholar
  8. Arnott, H.J., Smith, K.M., and Fullilove, S.L., 1968, Ultrastructure of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus affecting the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 24:479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aruga, H., 1971, Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis of the silkworm—historical, economical and epizootiological aspects, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 3–21, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  10. Aruga, H., and Nagashima, E., 1962, Generation to generation transmission of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori Linnaeus, J. Insect Pathol. 4:313.Google Scholar
  11. Aruga, H., and Tanada, Y. (eds.), 1971, The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  12. Aruga, H., and Watanabe, H., 1964, Resistance to per os infection with cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus), J. Insect Pathol. 6:387.Google Scholar
  13. Aruga, H., and Watanabe, H., 1970, Interference between UV-inactivated and active cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis viruses in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. II. Silkworm strain and time interval of inoculation, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 39:382 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  14. Asai, J., Kawamoto, F., and Kawase, S., 1972, On the structure of the cytoplasmic-polyhed-rosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 19:279.Google Scholar
  15. Atger, P., 1962, Virose intestinale chez la noctuelle du chou Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera), Ann. Epiphytol. (Paris) 13:263.Google Scholar
  16. Bailey, C.H., 1977, Field and laboratory observations on a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 29:69.Google Scholar
  17. Bailey, C.H., Shapiro, M., and Granados, R.R., 1975, A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from the larval blackflies, Cnephia mutata and Prosimulium mixtum (Diptera: Simuliidae), J. Invertebr. Pahol. 25:273.Google Scholar
  18. Banerjee, A.K., 1980, 5′-Terminal cap structure in eukaryotic messenger ribonucleic acids, Microbiol. Rev. 44:175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barbosa, E., and Moss, B., 1978, mRNA (nucleoside-2′-)-methyltransferase from vaccinia virus: Characteristics and substrate specificity, J. Biol. Chem. 253:7698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bell, M.R., 1977, Pink bollworm: Effect of infection by a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus on diapausing larvae, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70:675.Google Scholar
  21. Bell, M.R., and Kanavel, R.F., 1976, Effect of dose of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus on infection, mortality, development rate, and larval and pupal weights of the pink bollworm, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 28:121.Google Scholar
  22. Bell, M.R., and Kanavel, R.F., 1977, The effect of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus on lipid and protein content of pupae of the pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:359.Google Scholar
  23. Bellemare, N., and Belloncik, S., 1981, Études au laboratoire des effets d’une polyédrose cytoplasmique sur le ver gris blanc Euxoa scandens (Lépidoptère: Noctuidae Agrotinae), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Que. 26:28.Google Scholar
  24. Belloncik, S., and Arella, M., 1981, Production of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) polyhedra in a gamma irradiated Lymantria dispar cell line, Arch. Virol. 68:303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Belloncik, S., and Bellemare, N., 1980, Polyèdres du CPV d’Euxoa scandens (Lep: Noctuidae) produits in vivo et sur cellules cultivées in vitro: Etudes comparatives, Entomophaga 25:199.Google Scholar
  26. Belloncik, S., and Chagnon, A., 1980, Titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by a tissue microculture assay: Some applications, Intervirology 13:28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bergold, G.H., and Suter, J., 1959, On the structure of cytoplasmic polyhedra of some Lepidoptera, J. Insect Pathol. 1:1.Google Scholar
  28. Bernstein, J.M., and Hruska, J.F., 1981, Characterization of RNA polymerase products of Nebraska calf diarrhea virus and SA 11 rotavirus, J. Virol. 37:1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Biliotti, E., Grison, P., Maury, R., and Vago, C., 1959, Emploi d’une poudre à base de virus spécifique contre la chenille processionaire du pin dans le massif du Ventoux, C. R. Acad. Agric. Fr. 45:407.Google Scholar
  30. Bird, F.T., 1965, On the morphology and development of insect cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus particles, Can. J. Microbiol. 11:497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bird, F.T., 1969, Infection and mortality of spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana, and forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria caused by nuclear and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, Can. Entomol. 101:1269.Google Scholar
  32. Bird, F.T., and Whalen, M.M., 1954, A nuclear and a cytoplasmic polyhedral virus disease of the spruce budworm, Can. J. Zool. 32:82.Google Scholar
  33. Black, D.R., and Knight, C.A., 1970, Ribonucleic acid transcriptase activity in purified wound tumor virus, J. Virol. 6:194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Boccardo, G., Hatta, T., Francki, R.I.B., and Grivell, C.J., 1980, Purification and some properties of reovirus-like particles from leafhoppers and their possible involvement in wallaby ear disease of maize, Virology 100:300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Borsa, J., Grover, J., and Chapman, J.D., 1970, Presence of nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity in purified virions of reovirus, J. Virol. 6:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Boucias, D.G., and Nordin, G.L., 1978, A scanning electron microscope study of Hyphantria cunea CPV-infected midgut tissue, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 32:229.Google Scholar
  37. Boucias, D.G., and Nordin, G.L., 1979, Susceptibility of Hyphantria cunea to a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 52:641.Google Scholar
  38. Briese, D.T., 1981, Resistance of insect species to microbial pathogens, in: Pathogenesis of Invertebrate Microbial Diseases, (E.W. Davidson, ed.), pp. 511–545, Allanheld, Osmun, Totowa, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  39. Bullock, H.R., Martinez, E., and Stuermer, C.W. Jr., 1970, Cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus and the development and fecundity of the pink bollworm, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15:109.Google Scholar
  40. Cantwell, G.E., Faust, R.M., and Poole, H.K., 1968, Attempts to cultivate insect viruses in avian eggs, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 10:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Clark, T.B., Chapman, H.C., and Fukuda, T., 1969, Nuclear-polyhedrosis and cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus infection in Louisiana mosquitoes, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 14:284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen, J., Laporte, J., Charpilienne, A., and Scherrer, R., 1979, Activation of rotavirus RNA polymerase by calcium chelation, Arch. Virol. 60:177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crook, N.E., and Payne, C.C., 1980, Comparison of three methods of ELISA for baculoviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 46:29.Google Scholar
  44. Cunningham, J.C., and Longworth, J.F., 1968, The identification of some cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 11:196.Google Scholar
  45. Dai, R., Wu, A., Shen, X., Qian, L., and Sun, Y., 1982, Isolation of genome-enzyme complex from cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of silkworm, Bombyx morri, Sci. Sin. 25:29.Google Scholar
  46. Deguchi, T., and Barcias, J., 1971, Inhibition of transmethylations of biogenic amines by S-adenosyl-homocysteine: Enhancement of transmethylation by adenosylhomocysteinase, J. Biol. Chem. 246:3175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Deseo, K.V., Brunelli, A., Marani, F., and Bertaccini, A., 1980, II ruolo delle malattie nella dinamica della popolozioni di Lobesia botrana Den. E. Schiff. (Lepidoptera; Tortricidae) e la loro importanza pratica, Atti Giorn. Fitopatol. 3:441.Google Scholar
  48. Donaghue, T.P., and Hayashi, Y., 1972, Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) of Malacosoma disstria: RNA polymerase activity in purified free virions, Can. J. Microbiol. 18:207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Entwistle, P.F., 1978, Microbial control of insects and other pests, in: Crop Protection, pp. 72–96. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual meeting Bath University 1978, University of Bath, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  50. Faust, R.M., and Cantwell, G.E., 1968, Inducement of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis by intrahemocoelic injection of freed viral particles into the silkworm Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 11:119.Google Scholar
  51. Federici, B.A., 1974, Virus pathogens of mosquitoes and their potential use in mosquito control, in: Le contrôle des Moustiques/Mosquito Control (A. Aubin, J.-P. Bourassa, S. Belloncik, M. Pellisier, and E. Lacoursière, eds.), pp. 93-135, Les Presses de l’Université du Quebec.Google Scholar
  52. Federici, B.A., and Hazard, E.I., 1975, Iridovirus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in the fresh water daphnid Simocephalus expinosus, Nature (London) 254:327.Google Scholar
  53. Fujii-Kawata, I., Miura, K., and Fuke, M., 1970, Segments of genome of viruses containing double-stranded RNA, J. Mol. Biol. 51:247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Furuichi, Y., 1974, Methylation-coupled transcription by virus associated transcriptase of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus containing double stranded RNA, Nucleic Acids Res. 1:809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Furuichi, Y., 1978a, Pretranscriptional capping in the biosynthesis of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus mRNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:1086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Furuichi, Y., 1978b, Stimulation of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims mRNA synthesis by S-adenosylmethionine and its derivatives, Abstracts of the 4th International Congress for Virology, The Hague, p. 332, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  57. Furuichi, Y., 1981, Allosteric stimulatory effect of S-adenosyl methionine on the RNA polymerase in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims: A model for the positive control of eukaryotic transcription, J. Biol. Chem. 256:483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Furuichi, Y., and Miura, K.I., 1972, The 3′ termini of the genome RNA segments of silkworm cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims, J. Mol. Biol. 64:619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Furuichi, Y., and Miura, K.I., 1973, Identity of the 3′-terminal sequences in ten genome segments of silkworm cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims, Virology 55:418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Furuichi, Y., and Miura, K., 1975, A blocked stmcture at the 5′ terminus of mRNA from cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims, Nature (London) 253:374Google Scholar
  61. Furuichi, Y., and Shatkin, A.J., 1976, Differential synthesis of blocked and unblocked 5′-termini in reovims mRNA: Effect of pyrophosphate and pyrophosphatase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:3448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Furuichi, Y., and Shatkin, A.J., 1977, 5′-Termini of reovims mRNA: Ability of viral cores to form caps post-transcriptionally, Virology 77:566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Furuichi, Y., Morgan, M., Muthukrishnan, S., and Shatkin, A.J., 1975, Reovims messenger RNA contains a methylated blocked 5′-terminal stmcture: m7G(5′)ppp(5′)GmCp-, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Tomasz, J., and Shatkin, A.J., 1976a, Caps in eukaryotic mRNAs: Mechanism of formation of reovims mRNA 5′ terminal 7mGpppGm-C, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 19:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Tomasz, J., and Shatkin, A.J., 1976b, Mechanism of formation of reovirus mRNA 5′-terminal blocked and methylated sequence, m7GpppGmpC, J. Biol. Chem. 251:5043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Furuichi, Y., La Fiandra, A., and Shatkin, A.J., 1977, 5′-Terminal structure and mRNA stability, Nature (London) 266:235.Google Scholar
  67. Furusawa, T., and Kawase, S., 1971, Synthesis of ribonucleic acid resistant to actinomycin-D in silkworm midguts infected with the cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis vims, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18:156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fumsawa, T., and Kawase, S., 1973, Vims-specific RNA synthesis in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori infected with cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis vims, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22:335.Google Scholar
  69. Grace, T.D.C., 1962, The development of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis in insect cells grown in vitro, Virology 18:33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Granados, R.R., 1975, Multiplication of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims (CPV) in insect tissue cultures, Abstracts of the 3rd International Congress for Virology, Madrid, p. 98.Google Scholar
  71. Granados, R.R., 1976, The infection and replication of insect pathogenic vimses in tissue culture, Adv. Virus Res. 20:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Granados, R.R., 1978, Biology of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vimses and entomopoxvimses, in: Viral Pesticides: Present Knowledge and Potential Effects on Public and Environmental Health (M.D. Summers and C.Y. Kawanishi, eds.), pp. 89–101, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  73. Granados, R.R., McCarthy, W.J., and Naughton, M., 1974, Replication of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims in an established cell line of Trichoplusia ni cells, Virology 59:584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Grancher-Barray, S., Boisvert, J., and Belloncik, S., 1981, Electrophoretic characterization of proteins and RNA of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from Euxoa scandens, Arch. Virol. 70:55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Grison, P., Vago, C. and Maury, R., 1959, La lutte contre le processionaire du pin Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, dans le massif du Ventoux: Essai d’utilisation pratique d’un vims spécifique, Rev. For. Fr. (Nancy) 5:353.Google Scholar
  76. Harley, E.H., and Rubinstein, R., 1978, The multicomponent genome of a different cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims isolated from Heliothis armigera, Intervirology 10:351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Harley, E.H., Rubinstein, R., Losman, M., and Lutton, D., 1977, Molecular weights of the RNA genome segments of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims determined by a new comparative approach, Virology 76:210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Harpaz, I., Zlotkin, E., and Ben Shaked, Y., 1965, On the pathology of cytoplasmic and nuclear polyhedrosis of the Cyprus processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tarns., J. Invertebr. Pathol. 7:15.Google Scholar
  79. Harrap, K.A., 1972, The structure of nuclear polyhedrosis vimses. I. The inclusion body, Virology 50:114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Harrap, K.A., and Payne, C.C., 1979, The stmctural properties and identification of insect vimses, Adv. Virus Res. 25:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hayashi, Y., 1968, Constitution of the ribosomal fraction from the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) midgut infected with a CPV, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 12:468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hayashi, Y., 1970a, Occluded and free virions in midgut cells of Malacosoma disstria infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims (CPV), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 16:442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hayashi, Y., 1970b, RNA in midgut of tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma, infected wth cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis vims, Can. J. Microbiol. 16:1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hayashi, Y., and Bird, F.T., 1968a, The use of sucrose gradients in the isolation of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims particles, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 11:40.Google Scholar
  85. Hayashi, Y., and Bird, F.T., 1968b, Properties of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims from the white-marked tussock moth, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 12:140.Google Scholar
  86. Hayashi, Y., and Bird, F.T., 1970, The isolation of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims from the white-marked tussock moth Orgyia leucostigma (Smith), Can. J. Microbiol 16:695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hayashi, Y., and Donaghue, T.P., 1971, Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims: RNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro in infected midgut, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 42:214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hayashi, Y., and Kawarabata, T., 1970, Effect of actinomycin on synthesis of cell RNA and replication of insect cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis viruses in vivo, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15:461.Google Scholar
  89. Hayashi, Y., and Kawase, S., 1964, Base pairing in ribonucleic acid extracted from the cytoplasmic polyhedra of the silkworm, Virology 23:611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hayashi, Y., and Kawase, S., 1965a, Studies on the RNA in the cytoplasmic polyhedra of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. I. Specific RNA extracted from cytoplasmic polyhedra, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 34:83 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  91. Hayashi, Y., and Kawase, S., 1965b, Studies on the RNA in CPV of Bombyx mori. III. Comparison between icosahedral and hexagonal (polyhedra) RNA, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 34:167 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  92. Hayashi, Y., and Kawase, S., 1965c, Studies on the RNA in the cytoplasmic polyhedra of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. IV. Subcellular distribution, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 34:171 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  93. Hayashi, Y., and Kawase, S., 1965d, Studies on the RNA in the cytoplasmic polyhedra of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. V. Changes in fractionated RNA of the midgut, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 34:244 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  94. Hayashi, Y., and Krywienczyk, J., 1972, Electrophoretic fractionation of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus genome, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 19:160.Google Scholar
  95. Hayashi, Y., and Retnakaran, A., 1970, The site of RNA synthesis of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus (CPV) in Malacosoma disstria, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 16:150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hayashi, Y., Kawarabata, T., and Bird, F.T., 1970, Isolation of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 16:378.Google Scholar
  97. Hills, G.J. and Smith, K.M., 1959, Further studies on the isolation and crystallization of insect cytoplasmic viruses, J. Insect Pathol. 1:121.Google Scholar
  98. Hosaka, Y., and Aizawa, K., 1964, The fine structure of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus), J. Insect. Pathol. 6:53.Google Scholar
  99. Hrdy, D.B., Rosen, L., and Fields, B.N., 1979, Polymorphism of the migration of double-stranded RNA genome segments of reovirus isolates from humans, cattle and mice, J. Virol. 31:104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hsiao, K.-J., 1981, The use of biological agents for the control of the pine defoliator, Den-drolimus punctatus (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) in China, Prot. Ecol. 2:297.Google Scholar
  101. Hukuhara, T., 1972, Demonstration of polyhedra and capsules in soil with scanning electron microscope, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 20:375.Google Scholar
  102. Hukuhara, T., 1977, Purification of polyhedra of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from soil using Metrizamide, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 30:270.Google Scholar
  103. Hukuhara, T., and Hashimoto, Y., 1966a, Studies of two strains of cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8:184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hukuhara, T., and Hashimoto, Y., 1966b, Serological studies of the cytoplasmic and nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8:234.Google Scholar
  105. Hukuhara, T., and Wada, H., 1972, Adsorption of polyhedra of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus by soil particles, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 20:309.Google Scholar
  106. Hukuhara, T., and Yamaguchi, K., 1973, Ultrastructural investigation on a strain of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus with nuclear inclusions, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22:6.Google Scholar
  107. Ignoffo, C.M., 1968a, Specificity of insect viruses, Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 14:265.Google Scholar
  108. Ignoffo, C.M., 1968b, Viruses—living insecticides, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 42:129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ignoffo, C.M., 1973, Effects of entomopathogens on vertebrates, Ann. N.Y., Acad. Sci. 217:141.Google Scholar
  110. Ignoffo, C.M., and Adams, J.R., 1966, A cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, Smithiavirus pectinophorae sp. n. of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8:59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ignoffo, C.M., Hostetter, D.L., Sikorowski, P.P., Sutter, G., and Brooks, W.M., 1977, Inactivation of representative species of entomopathogenic viruses, a bacterium, fungus, and protozoan by an ultra-violet light source, Environ. Entomol. 6:411.Google Scholar
  112. Inoue, H., and Miyagawa, M., 1978, Regeneration of midgut epithelial cell in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, infected with viruses, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 32:373.Google Scholar
  113. Ishimori, N., 1934, Contribution a l’étude de la Grasserie du ver a soie, C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. 116:1169.Google Scholar
  114. Iwashita, Y., 1971, Histopathology of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedwsis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 79–101, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  115. Jahn, E., 1978, Uber das Auftreten einer cytoplasmatischen Polyedrose beim Zusammenbruch der Gradation von Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera; Lymantriidae) im Leithagebirge von Osterreich 1973, Z. Angew. Zool. 66:9.Google Scholar
  116. Joklik, W.K., 1974, Reproduction of Reoviridae, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 2 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 231–334, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Joklik, W.K., 1980, The structure and function of the reovims genome, in: Genetic Variation of Viruses (P. Palese and B. Roizman eds.), Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 354:107.Google Scholar
  118. Joklik, W.K., Skehel, J.J., and Zweerink, H.J., 1970, The transcription of the reovirus genome, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 35:791.Google Scholar
  119. Jurkovicova, M., 1979, Activation of latent virus infections in larvae of Adoxophyes orana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Barathra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by foreign polyhedra, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 34:213.Google Scholar
  120. Kalmakoff, J., Lewandowski, L.J., and Black, D.R., 1969, Comparison of the ribonucleic acid subunits of reovirus, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, and wound tumor virus, J. Virol. 4:851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kapuler, A.M., 1970, An extraordinary temperature dependence of the reovirus transcriptase, Biochemistry 9:4453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kapuler, A.M., Mendelsohn, N., Klett, H., and Acs, G., 1970, Four base-specific nucleoside 5′-triphosphatases in the subviral core of reovirus, Nature (London) 225:1209.Google Scholar
  123. Katagiri, K., 1969, Review on microbial control of insect pests in forests in Japan, Entomophaga 14:203.Google Scholar
  124. Katagiri, K., 1981, Pest control by cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, in: Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970–1980 (H.D. Burges, ed.), pp. 433–440. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  125. Kavenoff, R., Klotz, L.C., and Zimm, B.H., 1973, On the nature of chromosome-sized DNA molecules, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 38:1.Google Scholar
  126. Kawarabata, T., and Hayashi, Y., 1972, Development of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in an insect cell line, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 19:414.Google Scholar
  127. Kawase, S., 1964, The amino acid content of viruses and their polyhedron proteins of the polyhedroses of the silkworm Bombyx mori (Linnaeus), J. Insect Pathol. 6:156.Google Scholar
  128. Kawase, S., 1967, Ribonucleic acid extracted from the cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 9:136.Google Scholar
  129. Kawase, S., 1971, Chemical nature of the cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 37–59, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  130. Kawase, S., and Furusawa, T., 1971, Effect of actinomycin D on RNA synthesis in the midguts of healthy and CPV-infected silkworms, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18:33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kawase, S., and Kawamori, I., 1968, Chromatographic studies on RNA synthesis in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, infected with a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 12:395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kawase, S., and Miyajima, S., 1969, Immunofluorescence studies on the multiplication of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 13:330.Google Scholar
  133. Kawase, S., and Yamaguchi, K., 1974, A polyhedrosis virus forming polyhedra in midgutcell nucleus of silkworm, Bombyx mori. II. Chemical nature of the virion, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 24:106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kawase, S., Kawamoto, F., and Yamaguchi, K., 1973, Studies on the polyhedrosis virus forming polyhedra in the midgut-cell nucleus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. I. Purification procedure and form of the virion, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22:266.Google Scholar
  135. Knudson, D.L., 1981, Genome of Colorado tick fever virus, Virology 112:361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kobayashi, M., 1971, Replication cycle of cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus as observed with the electron microscope, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 103–128, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  137. Kobayashi, M., and Kawase, S., 1980, Absence of detectable accumulation of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viral RNA in the silkworm Bombyx mori, reared at a supraoptimal temperature, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 35:96.Google Scholar
  138. Kodama, T., and Suzuki, N., 1973, RNA polymerase activity in purified rice dwarf virus, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 39:251.Google Scholar
  139. Koyama, R., and Katagiri, K., 1968, Use of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus for the control of pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), Proceedings of the joint United States-Japan seminar on microbial control of insect pests, Fukuoka, April 21–23 1967, pp. 63–69, Institute of Biological Control, Kyushu University, Japan.Google Scholar
  140. Krieg, A., 1956, Uber die Nucleinsäuren der Polyeder-Viren, Naturwissenschaften 43:537.Google Scholar
  141. Krywienczyk, J., and Hayashi, Y., 1970, Serological comparison of ribosomal and viral components, J. Inveitebr. Pathol. 15:165.Google Scholar
  142. Krywienczyk, J., and Hayashi, Y., 1971, Specificity of serological cross-reactions between insect viruses and ribosomes, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 17:321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Krywienczyk, J., and Hayashi, Y., 1972, Serological investigations of subcellular fractions from Malacosoma disstria larvae infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 20:150.Google Scholar
  144. Krywienczyk, J., and Sohi, S.S., 1973, Serologic characterization of a Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) cell line, In Vitro (Rockville) 8:459.Google Scholar
  145. Krywienczyk, J., Hayashi, Y., and Bird, F.T., 1969, Serological investigations of insect viruses. I. Comparison of three highly purified cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis viruses, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 13:114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kurata, K., 1971, On symptoms of silkworms, Bombyx mori, infected with a cytoplasmicpolyhedrosis virus under aseptic conditions, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 40:32 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  147. Laemmli, U.K., 1970, Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature (London) 227:680Google Scholar
  148. Levin, K.H., and Samuel, C.E., 1977, Biosynthesis of reovirus-specified pplypeptides: Effect of methylation on the efficiency of reovirus genome expression in vitro, Virology 77:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lewandowski, L.J., and Leppla, S.H., 1972, Comparison of the 3′ termini of discrete segments of the double-stranded ribonucleic acid genomes of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, wound tumor virus and reovirus, J. Virol. 10:965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lewandowski, L.J., and Millward, S., 1971, Characterization of the genome of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, J. Virol. 7:434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lewandowski, L.J., and Traynor, B.L., 1972, Comparison of the structure and polypeptide composition of three double-stranded ribonucleic acid-containing viruses (Diplomaviruses): Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, wound tumor virus, and reovirus, J. Virol. 10:1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lewandowski, L.J., Kalmakoff, J., and Tanada, Y., 1969, Characterization of a ribonucleic acid polymerase activity associated with purified cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Virol. 4:857.Google Scholar
  153. Lipa, J.J., 1970, A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of Triphaena pronuba (L) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), Acta Microbiol. Pol. Ser. B. 2:237.Google Scholar
  154. Longworth, J.F., 1981, The replication of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda cells, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 37:54.Google Scholar
  155. Longworth, J.F., and Spilling, C.R., 1970, A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis of the larch sawfly, Anoplonyx destructor, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15:276.Google Scholar
  156. Lourenco, M.H., Nicolas, J.C., Cohen, J., Scherrer, R., and Bricout, F., 1981, Study of human rotavirus genome by electrophoresis: Attempt of classification among strains isolated in France, Ann. Virol. (Paris) 132:161.Google Scholar
  157. Luftig, R.B., Kilham, S., Hay, A.J., Zweerink, H.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1972, An ultrastructural study of virions and cores of reovirus type 3, Virology 48:170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Magnoler, A., 1974, Effects of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis on larval and post larval stages of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 23:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Martignoni, M.E., 1967, Separation of two types of viral inclusion bodies by isopycnic cen-trifugation, J. Virol. 1:646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Martignoni, M.E., and Iwai, P., 1977, A catalog of viral diseases of insects and mites, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, PNW-40.Google Scholar
  161. Martignoni, M.E., and Iwai, P.J., 1981, A catalogue of viral diseases of insects, mites and ticks, in: Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970–1980 (H.D. Burges, ed.), pp. 897–911, Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  162. Martignoni, M.E., Iwai, P.J., Hughes, K.M., and Addison, R.B., 1969, A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis of Hemerocampa pseudotsugata, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 13:15.Google Scholar
  163. Martin, S.A., Paoletti, E., and Moss, B., 1975, Purification of mRNA guanylyl-transferase and mRNA (guanine-7-(methyl transferase from vaccinia virus, J. Biol. Chem. 250:9322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Martinson, H.G., and Lewandowski, L.J., 1974, Sequence homology studies between the double-stranded RNA genomes of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, wound tumor virus and reovirus strains 1, 2 and 3, Intervirology 4:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Martouret, D., and Dusaussoy, G., 1959, Multiplication et extraction des corps d’inclusion de la virose intestinale de Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., Entomophaga 4:253.Google Scholar
  166. Matthews, R.E.F., 1979, Classification and nomenclature of viruses, Intervirology 12:131.Google Scholar
  167. McCrae, M.A., 1982, Coding assignments for the genes of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, Proceedings of the IIIrd International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology, pp. 20-24.Google Scholar
  168. McCrae, M.A., and Joklik, W.K., 1978, The nature of the polypeptide encoded by each of the 10 double-stranded RNA genome segments of reovirus type 3, Virology 89:578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. McCrae, M.A., and Mertens, P.P.C., 1983, In vitro translation studies on and RNA coding assignments for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, Proceedings of the International Double-Stranded RNA Virus Conference, Virgin Islands, October 1982, Elsevier, Amsterdam (in press).Google Scholar
  170. Mertens, P.P.C., 1979, A study of the transcription and translation (in vitro) of the genomes of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses types 1 and 2, D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  171. Mertens, P.P.C., and Dobos, P., 1982, The messenger RNA of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus is polycistronic, Nature (London) 297:243.Google Scholar
  172. Mertens, P.P.C., and Payne, C.C., 1978, S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine as a stimulator of viral RNA synthesis by two distinct cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, J. Virol. 26:832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mery, C., and Dulmage, H.T., 1975, Transmission, diagnosis and control of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in colonies of Heliothis virescens, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 26:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Miura, K.-I., 1981, The cap structure of eukaryotic messenger RNA as a mark of a strand carrying protein information, Adv. Biophys. 14:205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Miura, K.I., and Muto, A., 1965, Lack of messenger RNA activity of a double-stranded RNA, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 108:707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Miura, K., Fujii, I., Sakaki, T., Fuke, M., and Kawase, S., 1968, Double-stranded ribonucleic acid from cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, J. Virol. 2:1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Miura, K., Fujii-Kawata, I., Iwata, H., and Kawase, S., 1969, Electron-microscopic observation of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from the silkworm, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 14:262.Google Scholar
  178. Miura, K., Watanabe, K., and Sugiura, M., 1974, 5′-Terminal nucleotide sequences of the double-stranded RNA of silkworm cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, J. Mol. Biol. 86:31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Miura, K.-I., Kodama, Y., Shimotohno, K., Fukui, T., Ikehara, M., Nakagawa, L., and Hata, T., 1979, Inhibitory effect of methylated derivatives of guanylic acid for protein synthesis with reference to the functional structure of the 5′-cap in viral messenger RNA, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 564:264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Miyajima, S., and Kawase, S., 1967, Different infection response of silkworm larvae to the locality of CPV virus injection, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 9:441.Google Scholar
  181. Miyajima, S., and Kawase, S., 1969, Hemagglutination with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, Virology 39:347.Google Scholar
  182. Miyajima, S., Kimura, I., and Kawase, S., 1969, Purification of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 13:296.Google Scholar
  183. Morris, O.N., 1980, Entomopathogenic viruses: Strategies for use in forest insect pest management, Can. Entomol. 112:573.Google Scholar
  184. Muthukrishnan, S., Both, G.W., Furuichi, Y., and Shatkin, A.J., 1975, 5′ Terminal 7-methyl guanosine in eukaryotic mRNA required for translation, Nature (London) 255:33.Google Scholar
  185. Nakashima, K., Darzynkiewicz, E., and Shatkin, A.J., 1980, Proximity of mRNA 5′-region and 18S rRNA in eukaryotic initiation complexes, Nature (London) 286:226.Google Scholar
  186. Neilson, M.M., 1965, Effects of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis on adult Lepidoptera, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 7:306.Google Scholar
  187. Nichols, J.L., Hay, A.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1972, 5′-Terminal nucleotide sequence of reovirus mRNA synthesized in vitro, Nature (London) New Biol. 235:105.Google Scholar
  188. Nishimura, A., and Hosaka, Y., 1969, Electron microscopic study on RNA of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Virology 38:550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Payne, C.C., 1971, Properties and replication of some occluded insect viruses, D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  190. Payne, C.C., 1976, Biochemical and serological studies of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from Arctia caja: A naturally-occurring mixture of two virus types, J. Gen. Virol. 30: 357.Google Scholar
  191. Payne, C.C., 1981, Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, in: Pathogenesis of Invertebrate Microbial Diseases (E.W. Davidson, ed.), pp. 61–100, Allanheld, Osmun, Totowa, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  192. Payne, C.C., 1982, Insect viruses as control agents, in: Parasites as Biological Control Agents (R.M. Anderson and E.U. Canning, eds.), Parasitology.Google Scholar
  193. Payne, C.C., and Churchill, M.P., 1977, The specificity of antibodies to double-stranded (ds) RNA in antisera prepared to three distinct cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, Virology 79:251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Payne, C.C., and Harrap, K.A., 1977, Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, in: The Atlas of Insect and Plant Viruses (K. Maramorosch, ed.), pp. 105–129, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  195. Payne, C.C., and Kalmakoff, J., 1973, The synthesis of virus-specific single-stranded RNA in larvae of Bombyx mori infected with a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, Intervirology 1:34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Payne, C.C., and Kalmakoff, J., 1974a, Biochemical properties of polyhedra and virus particles of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori, Intervirology 4:354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Payne, C.C., and Kalmakoff, J., 1974b, A radioimmunoassay for the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from Bombyx mori, Intervirology, 4:365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Payne, C.C., and Kalmakoff, J., 1978, Alkaline protease associated with virus particles of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus: Assay, purification, and properties, J. Virol. 26:84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Payne, C.C., and Rivers, C.F., 1976, A provisional classification of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses based on the sizes of the RNA genome segments, J. Gen. Virol. 33:71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Payne, C.C., and Tinsley, T.W., 1974, The structural proteins and RNA components of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from Nymphalis io (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), J. Gen. Virol. 25:291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Payne, C.C., Piasecka-Serafin, M., and Pilley, B., 1977, The properties of two recent isolates of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, Intervirology 8:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Payne, C.C., Mertens, P.P.C., and Katagiri, K., 1978, A comparative study of three closelyrelated cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 32:310.Google Scholar
  203. Payne, C.C., Rubinstein, R., Crook, N.E., and Mertens, P.P.C., 1983, Serological and molecular studies of variation in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, Proceedings of the International Double-Stranded RNA Virus Conference, Virgin Islands, October 1982, El-sevier, Amsterdam (in press).Google Scholar
  204. Quiot, J.M., and Belloncik, S., 1977, Caractérisation d’une polyédrose cytoplasmique chez le lépidoptère Euxoa scandens, Riley (Noctuidae, Agrotinae): Etudes in vivo et in vitro, Arch. Virol. 55:145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Quiot, J.-M., Vago, C., and Belloncik, S., 1980a, Reaction antiviral par bourgeonnement cellulaire: Etude en culture de cellules de Lépidoptère infectée par un reovirus de polyédrose cytoplasmique, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. D 291:481.Google Scholar
  206. Quiot, J.-M., Vago, C., and Tchoukchry, M., 1980b, Etude experimentale sur culture de tissus de Lépidoptères, de l’interaction de deux virus d’invertébres, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. D. 290:199.Google Scholar
  207. Rao, C.B.J., 1973, Surface topography and shapes of polyhedral inclusion bodies of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 42:582.Google Scholar
  208. Rhodes, D.P., Reddy, D.V.R., MacLeod, R., Black, L.M., and Banerjee, A.K., 1977, In vitro synthesis of RNA containing 5′-terminal structure 7mG(5′)ppp(5′) Apm... by purified wound tumor virus, Virology 76:554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Richards, W.C., 1970, Disruption of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by ethanol. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15:457.Google Scholar
  210. Rodger, S.M., and Holmes, I.H., 1979, Comparison of the genomes of simian, bovine and human rotaviruses by gel electrophoresis and detection of genomic variation among bovine isolates, J. Virol. 30:839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Rodger, S.M., Holmes, I.H., and Studdert, M.J., 1980, Characteristics of the genomes of equine rotaviruses, Vet. Microbiol. 5:243.Google Scholar
  212. Rodger, S.M., Bishop, R.F., Birch, C., McLean, B., and Holmes, I.H., 1981, Molecular epidemiology of human rotaviruses in Melbourne, Australia, from 1973 to 1979 as determined by electrophoresis of genome ribonucleic acid, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rohrmann, G.F., Bailey, T.J., Becker, R.R., and Beaudreau, G.S., 1980, Comparison of the structure of C-and N-polyhedrins from two occluded viruses pathogenic for Orgyia pseudotsugata, J. Virol. 34:360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rubinstein, R., 1979, Some physical characteristics of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis armigera, Intervirology 12:340.Google Scholar
  215. Rubinstein, R., and Harley, E.H., 1978, Reproducible alterations of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus double-stranded RNA genome patterns on laboratory passage, Virology 84:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rubinstein, R., Harley, E.H., Losman, M., and Lutton, D., 1976, The nucleic acids of viruses infecting Heliothis armigera, Virology 69:323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sangar, D.V., Taylor, J., and Gorman, B.M., 1981, The identification of genome segments coding for bluetongue virus polypeptides, Abstracts of the 5th International Congress for Virology, Strasbourg, p. 428.Google Scholar
  218. Sharpe, A.H., Ramig, R.F., Murtoc, T.A., and Fields, B.N., 1978, A genetic map of reovirus. 1. Correlation of genomic RNAs between serotypes 1, 2, 3, Virology 84:63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Shatkin, A.J., 1974, Methylated messenger RNA synthesis in vitro by purified reovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:3204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Shimotohno, K., and Miura, K., 1973a, Transcription of double-stranded RNA in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in vitro, Virology 53:283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Shimotohno, K., and Miura, K.-I., 1973b, Single-stranded RNA synthesis in vitro by the RNA polymerase associated with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus containing doublestranded RNA, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 74:117.Google Scholar
  222. Shimotohno, K., and Miura, K.-I., 1974, 5′-Terminal structure of messenger RNA transcribed by the RNA polymerase of silkworm cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus containing double-stranded RNA, J. Mol. Biol. 86:21.Google Scholar
  223. Shimotohno, K., and Miura, K., 1976, The process of formation of the 5′-terminal modified structure in messenger RNA of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, FEBS Lett. 64:204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Shimotohno, K., and Miura, K.-I., 1977, Nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase associated with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 81:371.Google Scholar
  225. Shimotohno, K., Kodama, Y., Hashimoto, J., and Miura, K.-I., 1977, Importance of 5′-ter-minal blocking structure to stabilize mRNA in eukaryotic protein synthesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:2734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Shinshi, H., Miura, M., Sugimura, T., Shimotohno, K., and Miura, K., 1976, Enzyme cleaving the 5′-terminal methylated blocked structure of messenger RNA, FEBS Lett. 65:254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Sikorowski, P.P., and Thompson, A.C., 1979, Effects of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus on diapausing Heliothis virescens, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 33:66.Google Scholar
  228. Sikorowski, P.P., Andrews, G.L., and Broome, JR., 1973, Trans-ovum transmission of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 21:41.Google Scholar
  229. Silverstein, S.C., and Dales, S., 1968, The penetration of reovirus RNA and initiation of its genetic function in L-strain fibroblasts, J. Cell. Biol. 36:197.Google Scholar
  230. Silverstein, S.C., Astell, C., Levin, D.H., Schonberg, M., and Acs, G., 1972, The mechanisms of reovirus uncoating and gene activation in vivo, Virology 47:797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Simmons, C.L., and Sikorowski, P.P., 1973, A laboratory study of the effects of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus on Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22:369.Google Scholar
  232. Skup, D., and Millward, S., 1980a, mRNA capping enzymes are masked in reovirus progeny subviral particles, J. Virol. 34:490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Skup, D., and Millward, S., 1980b, Reovirus-induced modification of cap-dependent translation in infected L cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Skup, D., Zarbl, H., and Millward, S., 1981, Regulation of translation in L-cells infected with reovirus, J. Mol. Biol. 151:35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Smith, K.M., 1963, Cytoplasmic polyhedroses, in: Insect Pathology: An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 1 (E.A. Steinhaus, ed.), pp. 457–497, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  236. Smith, K.M., 1976, Virus-Insect Relationships, Longman, London.Google Scholar
  237. Smith, K.M., and Rivers, C.F., 1956, Some viruses affecting insects of economic importance, Parasitology 46:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Smith, K.M., and Wyckoff, R.W.G., 1950, Structure within polyhedra associated with insect virus diseases, Nature (London) 166:861.Google Scholar
  239. Smith, R.E., and Furuichi, Y., 1980a, Gene mapping of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of silkworm by the full-length mRNA prepared under optimized conditions of transcription in vitro, Virology 103:279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Smith, R.E., and Furuichi, Y., 1980b, Separation of full length transcripts and genome RNA plus and minus strands from cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims of Bombyx mori, in: Animal Virus Genetics (B.N. Fields and R. Jaenisch, eds.), pp. 391–400, Vol. 23, ICNUCLA Symposium on Molecular and Cellular Biology (CF. Fox ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  241. Smith, R.E., and Furuichi, Y., 1982a, A unique class of compound, guanosine-nucleoside tetraphosphate G(5′)pppp(5′)N, synthesized during the in vitro transcription of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims of Bombyx mori, I. Biol. Chem. 257:485.Google Scholar
  242. Smith, R.E., and Furuichi, Y., 1982b, Segmented CPV genome dsRNAs are independently transcribed, J. Virol. 41:326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Smith, R.E., Zweerink, H.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1969, Polypeptide components of virions, top component and cores of reovims type 3, Virology 39:791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Smith, R.E., Morgan, M.A., and Furuichi, Y., 1981, Separation of the plus and minus strands of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus and human reovirus double-stranded genome RNAs by gel electrophoresis, Nucleic Acids Res. 9:5269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Sohi, S.S., Bird, F.T., and Hayashi, Y., 1971, Development of Malacosoma disstria cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims in Bombyx mori ovarian and trache;al tissue cultures, Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Insect Pathology, College Park Maryland, 1970, pp. 340-351.Google Scholar
  246. Sonenberg, N., Skup, D., Trachsel, H., and Millward, S., 1981, In vitro translation in reovirus-and poliovirus-infected cell extracts, J. Biol. Chem. 256:4138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Stairs, G.R., Parrish, W.B., and Allietta, M., 1968, An histopathological study involving a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims of the salt-marsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 12:359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Steinhaus, E.A., and Dineen, J.P., 1959, A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis of the alfalfa caterpillar, J. Insect Pathol. 1:171.Google Scholar
  249. Stoltz, D.B., 1969, Observations on naturally occurring vimses in larvae of the midge, Chironomus plumosus, PhD. thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.Google Scholar
  250. Stoltz, D.B., and Hilsenhoff, W.L., 1969, Electron-microscopic observations on the maturation of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis vims, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 14:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Storer, G.B., Shepherd, M.G., and Kalmakoff, J., 1974a, Enzyme activities associated with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims from Bombyx mori. I. Nucleotide phosphohydrolase and nuclease activities, Intervirology 2:87.Google Scholar
  252. Storer, G.B., Shephard, M.G., and Kalmakoff, J., 1974b, Enzyme activities associated with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims from Bombyx mori. II. Comparative studies, Intervirology 2:193.Google Scholar
  253. Summers, M.D., and Kawanishi, C.Y., 1978, Viral pesticides: Present Knowledge and Potential Effects on Public and Environmental Health, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  254. Summers, M.D., Engler, R., Falcon, L.A., and Vail, P.V., 1975, Baculoviruses for Insect Pest Control: Safety Considerations, American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  255. Sun, Y., Wu, A., Dai, R., and Shen, X., 1981, Synthesis of structural proteins in a cell free system directed by silkworm cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus mRNA synthesized in vitro, Sci. Sin. 24:684.Google Scholar
  256. Tanada, Y., and Chang, G.Y., 1962, Cross-transmission studies with three cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, J. Insect. Pathol. 4:361.Google Scholar
  257. Tanada, Y., and Chang, G.Y., 1968, Resistance of the alfalfa caterpillar, Colias eurytheme, at high temperatures to a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus and thermal inactivation point of the virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 10:79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Tanada, Y., and Orni, E.M., 1974, Persistence of insect viruses in field populations of alfalfa insects, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 23:360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Tanada, Y., Tanabe, A.M., and Reiner, C.E., 1964, Survey of the presence of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus in field populations of the alfalfa caterpillar, Colias eurytheme Boisduval, in California, J. Insect Pathol., 6:439.Google Scholar
  260. Tanaka, S., 1971, Cross transmission of cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis viruses, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 201–207, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  261. Thompson, A.C., and Sikorowski, P.P., 1980, Fatty acid and glycogen requirement of Heliothis virescens infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, Comp. Biochem. Physiol B 66:93.Google Scholar
  262. Tinsley, T.W., 1979, The potential of insect pathogenic viruses as pesticidal agents, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24:63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Tinsley, T.W., and Harrap, K.A., 1978, Viruses of invertebrates, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 12 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 1–101, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  264. Vago, C., 1959, Sur le mode d’infection de la virose intestinale de Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., Entomophaga 4:311.Google Scholar
  265. Vago, C., and Bergoin, M., 1963, Développement des virus a corps d’inclusion du Lépidoptère Lymantria dispar en cultures cellulaires, Entomophaga 8:253.Google Scholar
  266. Vago, C., Croissant, O., and Lepine, P., 1959, Processus de l’infection à virus à partir des corps d’inclusion de “polyédrie cytoplasmique” ingérés par le Lépidoptère sensible, Mikroskopie 14:36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Vail, P.V., and Gough, D., 1970, Effects of cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus on adult cabbage loopers and their progeny, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15:397.Google Scholar
  268. Vail, P.V., Hall, I.M., and Gough, D., 1969, Influence of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus on various developmental stages of the cabbage looper, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 14:237.Google Scholar
  269. Van der Beek, C.P., Saaijer-Riep, J.D., and Vlak, J.M., 1980, On the origin of the polyhedral protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 100:326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Van Dijk, A.A., and Huismans, H., 1980, The in vitro activation and further characterization of the bluetongue virus associated transcriptase, Virology 104:347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Wada, A., Kawata, I., and Miura, K.-I., 1971, Flow-dichroic spectra of double-stranded RNA, Biopolymers 10:1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Watanabe, H., 1966a, Relative virulence of polyhedrosis viruses and host-resistance in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Appl. Entomol. Zool. 1:139.Google Scholar
  273. Watanabe, H., 1966b, Some aspects on the mechanism of resistance to peroral infection by cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., J. Seric, Sci. Jpn. 35:411 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  274. Watanabe, H., 1967a, Development of resistance in the silkworm, Bombyx mori to peroral infection of a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 9:474.Google Scholar
  275. Watanabe, H., 1967b, Site of viral RNA synthesis within the midgut cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, infected with cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 9:480.Google Scholar
  276. Watanabe, H., 1968a, Light radioautographic study of protein synthesis in the midgut epithelium of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, infected with a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 11:310.Google Scholar
  277. Watanabe, H., 1968b, Pathogenic changes in the faeces from the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., after peroral inoculation with a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 37:385 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  278. Watanabe, H., 1971a, Pathophysiology of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis in the silkworm, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 151–167, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  279. Watanabe, H., 1971b, Resistance of the silkworm to cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, in: The Cytoplasmic-Polyhedrosis Virus of the Silkworm (H. Aruga and Y. Tanada, eds.), pp. 169–184, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  280. Watanabe, H., 1972, Pathophysiology of nitrogen catabolism in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), infected with a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 6:163.Google Scholar
  281. Weiser, J., 1978, A new host, Simulium argyreatum Meig., for the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of blackflies in Czechoslovakia, Folia Parasitol. (Prague) 25:361.Google Scholar
  282. Wells, B.D., and Yang, J.T., 1974, A computer probe of the circular dichroic bands of nucleic acids in the ultraviolet region. II. Double-stranded ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonu-cleic acid, Biochemistry 13:1317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Wertheimer, A.M., Chen, S.Y., Borchardt, R.T., and Furuichi, Y., 1980, S-Adenosyl methi-onine and its analogs: Structural features correlated with synthesis and methylation of mRNAs of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, J. Biol. Chem. 255:5924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Wittig, G., Steinhaus, E.A., and Dineen, J.P., 1960, Further studies of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the alfalfa caterpillar, J. Insect Pathol. 2:334.Google Scholar
  285. Wood, H.A., 1973, Viruses with double-stranded RNA genomes, J. Gen. Virol. 20(Suppl.):61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Wu, A., Dai, R., Shen, X., and Sun, Y., 1981, [3H-methyl]methionine as possible methyl donor for formation of 5′-terminus of in vitro synthesized mRNA of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of silkworm, Bombyx mori, Sci. Sin. 24:1737.Google Scholar
  287. Xeros, N., 1956, The virogenic stroma in nuclear and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis, Nature (London) 178:412.Google Scholar
  288. Xeros, N., 1962, The nucleic acid content of the homologous nuclear and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 55:176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Xeros, N., 1966, Light microscopy of the virogenic stromata of cytopolyhedroses, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8:79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Yamaguchi, K., 1979, Natural recovery of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea to infection by a cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 33:126.Google Scholar
  291. Yamaguchi, K., Nakagawa, L., Hata, T., Shimotohno, K, Hiruta, M., and Miura, K.-I., 1976, Chemical and biological synthesis of confronted nucleotide structure at 5′-terminus of messenger RNA of CP virus, Nucleic Acids Res. S2:S151.Google Scholar
  292. Yamakawa, M., Shatkin, A.J., and Furuichi, Y., 1981, Chemical methylation of RNA and DNA viral genomes as a probe of in situ stmcture, J. Virol. 40:482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Yamamasu, Y., and Kawakita, T., 1962, Studies on the grasserie of the silk-producing insects. IV. On the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis of pine moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler., Bull. Fac. Text. Sci. Kyoto Univ. 3:421 (in Japanese; English summary).Google Scholar
  294. Yazaki, K., and Miura, K.-I., 1980, Relation of the stmcture of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims and the synthesis of its messenger RNA, Virology 105:467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Ying, S.L., 1970, Application of Isaria sp., cytoplasmic polyhedrosis vims and Bacillus thuringiensis against the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (Lasiocampidae: Lepidoptera), Q. J. Chinese For. 4:51.Google Scholar
  296. Zama, M., and Ichimura, S., 1976, Induced circular dichroism of acridine orange bound to double-stranded RNA and transfer RNA, Biopolymers 15:1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Zappia, V., Zydek-Cwick, C.R. and Schlenk, F., 1969, The specificity of S-adenosylmethionine derivatives in methyl transfer reactions, J. Biol. Chem. 244:4499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Zarbl, H., Skup, D., and Millward, S., 1980, Reovims progeny subviral particles synthesize uncapped mRNA, J. Virol. 34:497.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher C. Payne
    • 1
  • Peter P. C. Mertens
    • 2
  1. 1.Glasshouse Crops Research InstituteLittlehampton, West SussexUK
  2. 2.Animal Virus Research InstitutePirbright, Woking, SurreyUK

Personalised recommendations