Shyness pp 375-385 | Cite as

Short-Term Group Psychotherapy for Shyness

  • Paul A. Pilkonis
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)

Abstract

It is ironic that shyness, intrinsically an interpersonal problem, has been treated most frequently with individual therapies. Depending on the underlying model of shyness, the therapies have varied, but they can be characterized broadly as fitting into one of three groups: (a) relaxation and desensitization therapies aimed at alleviating anxiety and disinhibiting behaviors that are a part of the patient’s repertoire but that the patient is unable to perform easily; (b) behavioral therapies designed to enhance social skills that are not yet within the patient’s capability; and (c) cognitive therapies aimed at restructuring the patient’s negative self-image and expectancies in social situations. The typical paradigm has been to develop and implement such therapies in individual treatments. When group work has been done, it is usually employed for reasons of efficiency (i.e., it is more cost-effective to teach several individuals together rather than separately).

Keywords

Social Skill Social Anxiety Individual Therapy Interpersonal Difficulty Psychotherapy Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews, G., & Harvey, R. (1981). Does psychotherapy benefit neurotic patients? Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1203–1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arkowitz, H. (1977). The measurement and modification of minimal dating behavior. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification, Vol. 5 (pp. 1–61 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  5. Bowlby, J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds: I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 201–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss, Vol. 3: Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Curran, J. P. (1977). Skills training as an approach to the treatment of heterosexual-social anxiety: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 140–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falloon, I. R. H., Lindley, P., McDonald, R., & Marks, I. M. (1977). Social skills training of outpatient groups: A controlled study of rehearsal and homework. British Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 599–6609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hargreaves, W. A., Showstack, J., Flohr, A., Brady, C., & Harris, S. (1974). Treatment acceptance following intake assignment to individual therapy, group therapy, or contact group. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 343–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Imber, S. D., Lewis, P. M., & Loiselle, R. H. (1979). Uses and abuses of the brief intervention group. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 29, 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Krueger, D. W. (1979). Clinical considerations in the prescription of group, brief, long-term, and couples psychotherapy. Psychiatric Quarterly, 51, 92–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Landman, J. T., & Dawes, R. M. (1982). Psychotherapy outcome. American Psychologist, 37, 504–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewis, P., Cheney, T., & Dawes, A. S. (1977). Locus of control of interpersonal relationships questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 41, 507–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Linehan, M. M., Walker, R. O., Bronheim, S., Haynes, K. F., & Yevzeroff, H. (1979). Group versus individual assertion training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 1000–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: Is it true that “everyone has won and all must have prizes”? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Malan, D. (1976). The frontier of brief psychotherapy. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malan, D. H., Balfour, F. H. G., Hood, V. G., & Shooter, A. M. N. (1976). Group psychotherapy: A long-term follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1303–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mann, J. (1973). Time-limited psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Marzillier, J. S. Outcome studies of skills training: A review. In P. E. Trower, B. M. Bryant, & M. Argyle (Eds.), Social skills and mental health (pp. 103–130). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  20. Monti, P. M., Fink, E., Norman, W., Curran, J., Hayes, S., & Caldwell, A. (1979). Effect of social skills training groups and social skills bibliotherapy with psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 189–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Monti, P. M., Curran, J. P., Corriveau, D. P., Delancey, A. L., & Hagerman, S. M. (1980). Effects of social skills training groups and sensitivity training groups with psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 241–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pilkonis, P. A. (1977). Shyness, public and private, and its relationship to other measures of social behavior. Journal of Personality, 45, 585–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pilkonis, P.A., Imber, S. D., Lewis, P., & Rubinsky, P. (1984). A comparative outcome study of individual, group, and conjoint psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 431–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Royce, W. S., & Arkowitz, H. (1978). Multimodal evaluation of practice interactions as treatment for social isolation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 239–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shapiro, D. A., & Shapiro, D. (1982). Meta-analysis of comparative therapy outcome studies: A replication and refinement. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 581–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sifneos, P. (1972). Short-term psychotherapy and emotional crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Smith, M. L., Glass, G. V., & Miller, T. I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Twentyman, C.T., & Zimering, R. T. Behavioral training of social skills: A critical review. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification, Vol. 7 (pp. 319–400). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Weick, K. E. (1984). Small wins: Redefining the scale of social problems. American Psychologist, 39, 40–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Weiss, R. S. (1974). The provisions of social relationships. In Z. Rubin (Ed.), Doing unto others (pp. 17–26 ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  32. Wolfe, J. L., & Fodor, I. G. (1977). Modifying assertive behavior in women: A comparison of three approaches. Behavior Therapy, 8, 567–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yardley, K. M. (1979). Social skills training—A critique. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 5562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul A. Pilkonis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations