Synthesis and Processing Relevant to Systems Integration of Nonlinear Optical Materials
The various synthesis and processing steps required to fabricate prototype electro-optic modulators from polymeric materials containing nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores are discussed. These include (1) synthesis of chromophores with large first hyperpolarizabilities, (2) covalent incorporation of these chromophores into polymer lattices which can be processed into optical quality thin films and poled by application of electric fields, (3) induction of lattice hardening reactions which lock-in poling-induced noncentrosymmetric order, (4) creation of buried channel, nonlinear optical waveguides by reactive ion etching, by electron cyclotron resonance etching, and/or by photochemical processing, (5) coupling of buried channel electro-optic modulators to fiber optic transmission lines by silicon V groove techniques, (6) deposition of metal drive electrodes (integration of semiconductor electronics and optical circuitry) and evaluation of prototype devices.
KeywordsLithium Niobate Electron Cyclotron Resonance Nonlinear Optical Material Electric Field Poling Polymer Lattice
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