Health Policy and Smoking and Tobacco Use

  • K. Michael Cummings

Overview

In the 1990s, public and governmental attitudes toward tobacco use are dramatically different in comparison to the attitudes of the 1950s and before. Smoking then was widely perceived as a mark of sophistication and a natural accompaniment of work and play. In the 1990s, smoking is seen as an unhealthful behavior that is increasingly unacceptable in social settings (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 1989). The evidence that smoking poses a serious health risk is relatively recent in origin. Although studies demonstrating health risks associated with smoking date back to the 1920s, tobacco use was not widely accepted as dangerous until publication of the 1964 Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health (DHHS, 1989). That report stated in unequivocal terms that “cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action” (U.S. Public Health Service, 1964).

With the widespread publicity of the findings in the 1964 report, tobacco use was added, virtually overnight, to the political agenda (DHHS, 1989; Rabin & Sugarman, 1993; Simonich, 1991). Since the mid-1960s, public attitudes about smoking have changed dramatically, and political activity addressing the conduct of smokers and the tobacco industry has increased correspondingly. This chapter reviews the rationale and success of different public and private policies to reduce tobacco use since 1964.

Keywords

Smoking Behavior Tobacco Control Tobacco Product Smokeless Tobacco Federal Trade Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, K., Moss, A., Giovino, G. A., Shopland, D. R., & Pierce, J. P. (1993). Teenage tobacco use data: Estimates from the teenage attitudes and practices survey, United States, 1989. Advance Data, No. 224.Google Scholar
  2. Benowitz, N. L., Henningfeld, J. E. (1994). Establishing a nicotine threshold for addiction, New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 123–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhalla, G., Lastovicka, J. L. (1984). The impact of changing cigarette warning message content and format, Advertising and Consumer Research, 11, 305–310.Google Scholar
  4. Blum, A. (1989). Warnings: Smokers opt for the new, prefer carbon monoxide poisoning to fatal injury, Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 44–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum A., & Myers, M. (1993). Tobacco marketing and promotion. In T. P. Houston (Ed.), Tobacco use: An American crisis (pp. 63–71). Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  6. Brandt, A. (1990). The cigarette, risk, and American culture, Daedalus, 119, 155–176.Google Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994a). Medical-care expenditures attributable to cigarette smoking—United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 43(26), 469–472.Google Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1994b). Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 43(50), 925–930.Google Scholar
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1995). Trends in smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults—United States, 1980–1989, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 44(28), 521–525.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman, S. (1989). The limitations of econometric analysis in cigarette advertising studies, British Journal of Addiction, 84, 1267–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coalition on Smoking or Health. (1993). Saving lives and raising revenues: The case for major increases in state and federal tobacco taxes. Washington DC: Coalition on Smoking or Health.Google Scholar
  12. Coalition on Smoking or Health. (1995). Protecting our families and children from tobacco: Public policy activities of the Coalition on Smoking or Health 1995 and 1996. Washington DC: Coalition on Smoking or Health.Google Scholar
  13. COMMIT Research Group (1995). Community intervention trial for smoking cessation (COMMIT). I. Cohort results from a four year community intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 85(2), 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Connolly, G. N. (1992). Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry, Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monograph, 12, 29–35.Google Scholar
  15. Davis, R. M., & Kendrick, J. S. (1989). The Surgeon General’s warnings in outdoor cigarette advertising: Are they readable? Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 90–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daynard, R. A. (1988). Tobacco litigation as a cancer control strategy, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 80, 9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DiFranza, J. R., Carlson, R. P., Caisse, R. E. (1992). Reducing youth access to tobacco. Tobacco Control, 1, 58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DiFranza, J. R., Richards, J. W., Paulman, P. M., Wol, F., Gillespie, N., Fletcher, C., Jaffe, R. D., Murray, D. (1991). RJR Nabisco’s cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children, Journal of the American Medical Association, 266, 3149–3153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunn, W. L., Jr. (1972). Motives and incentives in cigarettes. Richmond, VA: Philip Morris Research Center.Google Scholar
  20. Emont, S. L., Lhoi, W. S., Novotny, T. E. (1993). Clean indoor air legislation, taxation, and smoking behavior in the United States: An ecological analysis, Tobacco Control, 2, 13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Federal Communications Commission. (1987). Inquiry into section 73.1910 of the Commission’s rules and regulations concerning alternatives to the general Fairness Doctrine obligations of broadcast licensees. Federal Communications Commission Record, 2, 5272.Google Scholar
  22. Federal Trade Commission. (1964). Advertising and labeling of cigarettes: Notice of rulemaking proceedings for establishment of trade regulation roles, Federal Register, 29, 530–532.Google Scholar
  23. Federal Trade Commission. (1969). Cigarettes in relation to the health hazards of smoking: Unfair or deceptive advertising and labeling, Federal Registry, 34, 7917–7918.Google Scholar
  24. Federal Trade Commission. (1981a). Federal Trade Commission staff report on the cigarette advertising investigation. Federal Trade Commission.Google Scholar
  25. Federal Trade Commission. (1981b). Report of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide of the smoke of 187 varieties of cigarettes. Federal Trade Commission.Google Scholar
  26. Fischer, P. M., Krugman, D. M., Fletcher, J. E., Fox, R. J., Ras, T. H. (1993). An evaluation of health warnings in cigarette advertisements using standard market research methods: What does it mean to warn? Tobacco Control, 2, 279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fischer, P.M., Richards, J. W., Berman, E. F., & Krugman, D. M. (1989). Recall and eye tracking study of adolescents viewing tobacco advertisements, Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 84–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Giovino, G. A., Schooley, M. W., Zhu, B. P., Chrisman, J. H., Tomar, S. L., Peddicord, J. P., Merritt, R. K., Husten, C. G., & Eriksen, M. P. (1994, Nov. 18). Surveillance for selected tobacco-use behaviors—United States, 1900–1994 CDC Surveillance Summaries, 43 (SS-3), 1–43.Google Scholar
  29. Hamilton, J. L. (1972). The demand for cigarettes: Advertising, health scare, and the cigarette advertising ban, Review of Economics and Statistics, 54, 401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henningfeld, J. E., Cohen, C., & Pickworth, W. D. (1993). Psychopharmacology of nicotine. In C. T. Orleans & J. Slade (Eds.), Nicotine addiction: Principles and management. (pp. 24–45). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hill, D. (1993). Australia’s new health warnings on cigarette packaging, Tobacco Control, 2, 92–94.Google Scholar
  32. Hilts, P. J. (1994a, April 29). Scientists say cigarette company suppressed findings on nicotine. The New York Times, p. A1.Google Scholar
  33. Hilts, P. J. (1994b, May 2). Major flaw cited in cigarette data: Testing for tar and nicotine under reports amounts. The New York Times, p. A1.Google Scholar
  34. Hilts, P. J. (1994c, Nov. 27). Little smoke, little tar, but still lots of nicotine. The New York Times, p. A1.Google Scholar
  35. Institute of Medicine. (1994). Growing up tobacco free: Preventing nicotine addiction in children and youths. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  36. Jason, L. A., Ji, P. Y., Ames, M. D., & Birhead, S. H. (1991). Active enforcement of cigarette control laws in the prevention of cigarette sales to minors, Journal of the American Medical Association, 166, 3159–3161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kagan, R. A., & Skolnick, J. H. (1993). Banning smoking: Compliance without enforcement. In R. L. Rabin & S. D. Sugarman (Eds.), Smoking policy: Law, politics and culture, (pp. 69-94). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Kagan, R. A., & Vogel, D. (1993). The politics of smoking regulation: Canada, France, the United States. In R. L. Rabin & S. D. Sugarman (Eds.), Smoking policy: Law, politics, and culture (pp. 22–48). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kaiserman, M. J. (1993). The effectiveness of health warning messages, Tobacco Control, 2, 267–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kessler, D. A. (1994a, March 25). Statement on nicotine-containing cigarettes. Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment.Google Scholar
  41. Kessler, D. A. (1994b, June 21). The control and manipulation of nicotine in cigarettes. Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment.Google Scholar
  42. Lewit, E. M. (1989). U.S. tobacco taxes: Behavioral effects and policy implications, British Journal of Addiction, 84, 1217–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. National Cancer Institute. (1992). Smokeless tobacco or health: An international perspective. NIH Publication No. 92-3461. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  44. National Cancer Institute. (1993). Major local tobacco control ordinances in the United States. NIH Publication No. 93-3532. National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  45. Northup, A. M. (1993). U.S. agricultural policy on tobacco. In T. P. Houston (Ed.), Tobacco use: an American crisis, Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  46. Office of the Inspector General. (1992). Youth access to tobacco. OEI-02-92-00880. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  47. O’Keefe, M. T. (1971). The anti-smoking commercials: A study of television’s impact on behavior, Public Opinion Quarterly, 35, 242–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Orleans, C. T., Slade, J. (1993). Nicotine addiction: Principles and management. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Parkinson, M. D., Schauffler, H. H., Kottke, T. E., Curry, S. J., Sulberg, L. I., Arnold, C. B., Butz, R. H., Taylor, R., Halloway, J. B., & Meltzer, C. (1992). Report of the tobacco policy research study group on reimbursement and insurance in the United States. Tobacco Control 1 (Supplement), 552–556.Google Scholar
  50. Peto, R., Lopez, A. D., Boreham, J., Thun, M., & Heath, C., Jr. (1992). Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: Indirect estimates from national vital statistics, Lancet, 339, 1268–1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pierce, J. P., Evans, N., Farkas, A. J., Cavin, S. W., Berly, C., Kramer, M., Konley, S., Rosbrook, B., Choi, W., & Kaplan R. M. (1994). Tobacco use in California: An evaluation of the tobacco control program, 1989–1993. La Jolla: University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
  52. Pierce, J. P., Fiore M. C., Novotny, T. E., Hatziandrev, E. J., & Davis, R. M. (1989). Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States: Educational differences are increasing, Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 56–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pierce, J. P., Gilpin, E., Burns, D. M., Whalen, E., Rosbrook, B., Shopland, D., & Johnson, M. (1991). Does tobacco advertising target young people to start smoking? Journal of the American Medical Association, 266, 3154–3158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pierce, J. P., Lara, L., & Gilpin, E. (1994). Smoking initiation by adolescent girls, 1944 through 1988, Journal of the American Medical Association, 271(8), 608–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pollay, R. W. (1994a). Exposure of U.S. youth to cigarette television advertising in the 1960’s. Tobacco Control, 3, 130–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pollay, R. W. (1994b). Promises, promises: Self-regulation of U.S. cigarette broadcast advertising in the 1960’s. Tobacco Control, 3, 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rabin, R. L., Sugarman, S. D. (Eds.). (1993). Smoking policy: Law, politics and culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Samet, J. M., Lewit, E. M., & Warner K. E. (1994). Involuntary smoking and children’s health, The Future of Children: Critical Health Issues for Children and Youth, 4, 94–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schauffler, H. H. (1993). Health insurance policy and the politics of tobacco. In R. L. Rabin & S. D. Sugarman (Eds.), Smoking policy: Law, politics, and culture (pp. 184–207). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Schneider, L., Klein, B., & Murphy K. M. (1981). Government regulation of cigarette health information, Journal of Law and Economics, 24, 575–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simonich, W. L. (1991). Government anti-smoking policies. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  62. Slade, J., Connolly, G. N., Davis, R. M., Douglas, C. E., Henningfeld, J. E., Hughes, J. R., Kozlowski, L. T. & Myers, M. L. (1992). Report of the policy research study group on tobacco products. Tobacco Control 1(Supplement), 54–59.Google Scholar
  63. Sugarman, S. D. (1993). Disparate treatment of smokers on employment and insurance. In R. L. Rabin & S. D. Sugarman (Eds.), Smoking policy: Law, politics, and culture (pp. 161–183). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Tobacco Product Liability Protect (1995). 1994 Year in Review. Tobacco on Trial 1, 1–44.Google Scholar
  65. U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey. (1992, September). Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  66. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1986). The health consequences of involuntary smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 87-8398. Washington, DC: Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  67. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1988). The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction—A report of the Surgeon General, 1988. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406. Washington, DC: Office on Smoking and Health. Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  68. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1989). Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 Years of progress—A report of the Surgeon General. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 89-8411. Washington, DC: Office on Smoking and Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  69. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1994). Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Office on Smoking and Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  70. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1992). Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: Lung cancer and other disorders. EPA 600/6-90/006F. Washington, DC: Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
  71. U.S. Public Health Service. (1964). Smoking and health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. PHS Publication No. 1103. Washington, DC: Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
  72. Wagner, S. (1971). The Federal Trade Commission. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  73. Wallack, L. M. (1981). Mass media campaigns: The odds against finding behavior change, Health Education Quarterly, 8, 209–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Warner, K. E. (1986). Selling smoking: Cigarette advertising and public health. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  75. Warner, K. (1989). Effects of the anti-smoking campaign: An update, American Journal of Public Health, 79, 144–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warner, K. E., Slade, J. (1992). Low tar, high toll, American Journal of Public Health, 82, 17–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wasserman, J., Manning, W. E., Newhouse, J. P., & Winkler, J. D. (1991). The effects of excise taxes and regulations on cigarette smoking. Journal of Health Economics, 10, 43–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Watson, D. S. (1972). Price theory and its uses. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  79. Wright, G. (1984). Behavioral decision theory: An introduction. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Michael Cummings
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cancer Control and EpidemiologyRoswell Park Cancer InstituteBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations