Cerebral Herniation Syndromes

  • Ronald Kanner

Abstract

Cerebral herniation syndromes are medical emergencies caused by displacement of the brain across hard structures in the skull. Acute and/or asymmetric increases in intracranial pressure, as seen with hemorrhage into a tumor or obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, are most likely to cause herniation. Ill-timed lumbar puncture may also cause brain shifts by producing a pressure gradient. The syndromes evolve rapidly, over hours, and are characterized clinically by the following symptoms:
  1. 1.

    Progressive obtundation

     
  2. 2.

    Pupillary and oculomotor signs

     
  3. 3.

    Motor signs

     
Treatment is designed to reduce intracranial pressure through hyperventilation, steroids, osmotic agents, and surgery.

Keywords

Intracranial Pressure Tympanic Membrane Comatose Patient Medial Rectus Osmotic Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Selected Readings

  1. Cairncross JG, Posner JB: Neurological complications of cancer, in Yarbro JW, Bornstein RF (eds): Oncologic Emergencies. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. Jennett B, Teasdal“e G (eds): Management of Head Injuries. Contemporary Neurology Series,Vol. 20. Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. Plum F, Posner JB (eds): The Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed. Contemporary Neurology Series, Vol. 19. Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Kanner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Unified Pain ServiceMontefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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