Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Silicate Minerals

  • J. M. D. Coey
Chapter
Part of the Modern Inorganic Chemistry book series (MICE, volume 1)

Abstract

Silicate minerals are the commonest accessible materials on Earth. Thanks to the strong affinity of silicon for oxygen and the low density of the resulting oxides (3 g/cm3) compared with the average global density (5.5 g/cm3). Well over 90% of the crust is made up of silicates. Other elements are concentrated in the upper layers of the Earth when they form particularly stable simple oxides or complex oxides with Si02, and just eight elements together account for nearly 99% of the crustal mass. After oxygen and silicon itself come aluminum, iron, and four alkali or alkaline earth elements. Aluminosilicates are therefore the principal terrestrial minerals. Iron is believed from the evidence of meteoritic and stellar abundances, and the Earth’s density profile, to be the most abundant element in the whole Earth (35 wt. %), but it represents only 5% of the mass, and the less than 2% of the atoms in the crust. No other useful Mössbauer element is sufficiently plentiful for it to appear as a significant constituent of common natural minerals (e.g., Sn 2 ppm; Sb 0.2 ppm; Dy 3 ppm). The striking fact that 94% of the crust, by volume, is made of oxygen reflects the large ionic radius of O2−, 1.40 Å, and the elementary principle of crystal chemistry that the structures of oxides, silicates included, are basically closely packed arrays of oxygen anions with small metallic cations in the interstices. Figure 1 summarizes the composition of the crust by mass, number of atoms, and volume, thereby situating in a global context the subject matter of this chapter—silicate minerals containing iron along with varying amounts of other major elements.

Keywords

Mossbauer Spectroscopy Ferrous Iron Isomer Shift Octahedral Site Quadrupole Splitting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. D. Coey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Trinity CollegeUniversity of DublinDublin 2Ireland

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