Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to the development of chronic hepatitis (both chronic persistent and chronic active), post-necrotic cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC). This statement, which does not sound particularly revolutionary now, is directly contrary to the consensus of experts circa 1960 (1). At that time, it was thought that neither infectious nor serum hepatitis (the terms used then) led to chronic liver disease. Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, it was thought, were caused by autoimmune or toxic reactions to unidentified agents.
KeywordsChronic Hepatitis Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Active Hepatitis Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Chronic Carrier
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Chalmers, T. C. and Sebestyen, C. S. (1962). Evidence against infectious hepatitis as a cause of cirrhosis. Trans. Amer. Clin. Climat. Assoc. 74:192.Google Scholar
- 7.Simon, J. B. and Patel, S. (1974). Liver disease in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B antigen. Gastroenterology 66:1028.Google Scholar
- 9.DeFranchi, R., D’Arraino, A., Vecchi, M., Ronchi, G., del Ninno, F., Pariavacini, A., Ferroni, P., and Zanetti, P. (1980). Chronic asymptomatic HBsAg carriers: Histologic abnormalities and diagnostic and prognostic value of serologic markers of the HBV. Gastroenterology 79:521.Google Scholar
- 10.Dragosics, B., Franci, P., Denk, H. and Wewalka, F. (1982). Clinical and histological long-term study of HBsAg(+) voluntary blood donors in Austria. Hepatology 2:747.Google Scholar
- 12.Larouze, B., London, W. T., Saimot, G., Werner, B. G., Lustbader, E. D., Payet, M., and Blumberg, B. S. (1976). Host responses to hepatitis B infection in patients with primary hepatic cancer and their families. A case/control study in Senegal, West Africa. Lancet 2:534.Google Scholar
- 13.Nayak, N. C., Dhar, A., Sachdeva, R., Mittal, A., Seth, H. N., Sudarsanam, D., Reddy, B., Waghaolikar, U. L., and Reddy, C.R.R.M. (1977). Association of human hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis with hepatitis virus surface and core antigens in the liver. Int. J. Cancer 20:643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Brechot, C., Pourcel, C., Hadchouel, M., Dejean, A., Louise, A., Scotto, J., and Tiollais, P. (1982). State of hepatitis B virus DNA in liver diseases. Hepatology 2:275.Google Scholar
- 17.Beasley, R. P. (1982). Hepatitis B virus as the etiologic agent in hepatocellular carcinoma — Epidemiologic considerations. Hepatology 2:21S.Google Scholar
- 18.Sakuma, K., Takara, T., Okuda, K., Tsudo, F., and Mayumi, M. (1982). Prognosis of hepatitis B virus surface antigen carriers in relation to routine liver function tests: A prospective study. Gastroenterology 83:144.Google Scholar
- 21.Snyder, R. L. and Summers, J. (1980). Woodchuck hepatitis virus and hepatocellular carcinoma, in Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers, M. Essex, G. Todaro and H. zur Hausen, eds., pp. 447-457, Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.Google Scholar