Etiologies of Schizophrenia

Biological
  • John S. Strauss
  • William T. CarpenterJr.
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)

Abstract

A medical model seems inescapable when considering the biological factors that may contribute to schizophrenia. The question is which medical model is most appropriate. An interactive developmental model provides, we believe, a broad conception of disease that is most adequate for integrating the available facts relevant to the etiologies of schizophrenia. However, genetic and biochemical hypotheses have often been presented within a narrower biomedical model of illness. Such a model has stated or implied that deviations in brain physiology are sufficient to account for schizophrenia without the need to implicate environmental factors. In such a view, psychology and sociology are recognized as relevant to the expression of illness, of course, but etiology is viewed solely in biomedical terms. The presumed brain dysfunction could be conceptualized as structural or functional. In either case, etiology might originate within the brain (e.g., in abnormal limbic system anatomy or function), or the brain could be viewed as the organ of response (e.g., to an abnormal metabolite formed in the gut or liver).

Keywords

Antipsychotic Drug Schizophrenic Patient Methyl Donor Opiate Receptor Biological Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Recommended Reading

  1. Freedman, D. X. Biology of the major psychoses: A comparative analysis. New York: Raven Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. Kety, S. S. Biochemical theories of schizophrenia. A two-part critical review of current theories and of the evidence used to support them. Science, 1959, 129: 1528–1532, 1590–1596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kety, S.S. Current biochemical approaches to schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine, 1967, 276: 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2(1).Google Scholar
  5. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3(1).Google Scholar
  6. Snyder, S. H., Banerjee, S. P., Yamamura, H. I., and Greenberg, D. Drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia. Science, 1974, 184: 1243–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Spohn, H. E., and Patterson, T. Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1979, 5(4) 581–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stevens, J. R. An anatomy of schizophrenia? Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 29: 177–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wyatt, R. J., Termini, B. A., and Davis, J. Biochemical and sleep studies of schizophrenia: A review of the literature—1960–1970. Part 1. Biochemical studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Fall 1971, 1 (Experimental issue 4): 10–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Freud, S. A project for a scientific psychology. In: The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Strachey, J. (ed.). London: Hogarth Press, 1966, 1: 283–398.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Searles, H. F. Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects. New York: International Universities Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wynne, L. C., Singer, M. T., Bartko, J. J., and Toohey, M. L. Schizophrenics and their families: Recent research on parental communication. In: Developments in psychiatric research, Tanner, J. M. (ed.). London: Hodden & Stoughton, 1977, 254–286.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bleuler, E. Dementia praecox. New York: International Universities Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Freud, S. On narcissism: An introduction, 1914. In: The standard edition of the complete works of Sigmund Freud, Strachey, J., and Freud, A. (eds.). London: Hogarth Press, 1957, 14: 67–102.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weinberger, D. R., Bigelow, L. B., Kleinman, J. E., Klein, S. T., Rosenblatt, J. E., and Wyatt, R. J. Cerebral ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1980, 37: 11–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kleinman, J. E., Bridge, P., Kavorem, F., Speciale, S., Staub, R., Lalcman, S., Gillin, J. C, and Wyatt, R. J. Catecholamines and metabolism in the brain of psychotics and normals: Postmortem studies. In: Catecholamines: Basic and clinical frontiers, Usdin, E., Kopin, I. J. and Barchas, J. D. (eds.). New York: Pergamon Press, 1979, 1845–1847.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wyatt, R. J., Lermini, B. A., and Davis, J. Biochemical and sleep studies of schizophrenia: A review of the literature, 1960–1970: Part 1. Biochemical studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1971, 4, 10–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Selye, H. Stress and the general adaptation syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1950, 2: 1383–1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arlow, J. A., and Brenner, C. Psychoanalytic Concepts and the Structural Theory. New York: International Universities Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matthysse, S. W., and Kidd, K. K. Estimating the genetic contribution to schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133: 185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rieder, R. O., and Gershon, E. S. Genetic strategies in biological psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1978, 35: 866–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gottesman, I.I., and Shields, J. A critical review of recent adoption, twin, and family studies of schizophrenia: Behavioral genetics perspectives. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2: 360–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kety, S. S., Rosenthal D., Wender, P. H., and Schulsinger, F. The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics. In: The Transmission of Schizophrenia, Rosenthal, D., and Kety, S. S. (eds.). Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1968, 345–362.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wynne, L. C, Singer, M. T., and Toohey, M. L. Communication of the adoptive parents of schizophrenics. In: Schizophrenia 75: Psychotherapy, family studies, research, Jorstad, J., and Ugelstad, E. (eds.). Oslo: Universitetsfor-laget, 1976, 413–452.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Janowsky, D. S. and Davis, J. M. Dopamine, psychomotor stimulants, and schizophrenia: Effects of methylphenidate and the stereoisomers of amphetamine in schizophrenia. In: Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes, Usdin, E. (ed.). New York: Raven Press, 1973, 317–23.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Janowsky, D. S., El-Yousef, M. K., Davis, J. M., and Sekerke, H. J. Provocation of schizophrenic symptoms by intravenous administration of methylphenidate. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28: 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Snyder, S. H., Banerjee, S. P.,Yamamura, H. I., and Greenberg, D. Drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia. Science, 1974, 184: 1243–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seeman, P., Lee, T., Chau-Wong, M., and Wong, K. Antipsychotic drugs, doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors. Nature, 1976, 261: 717–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee, T., Seeman, P., Tourtellotte, W. W., Farley, I. J., and Hornykeiwicz, O. Binding of 3H-neuroleptics and 3H-apomorphine in schizophrenic brains. Nature, 1978, 274: 897–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosengarten, H., and Friedhoff, A. J. A review of recent studies of the biosynthesis and excretion of hallucinogens formed by methylation of neurotransmitters or related substances. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2: 90–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Osmond, H., and Smythies, J. Schizophrenia: A new approach. Journal of Mental Sciences, 1952, 98: 309–315.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carpenter, W. T., Fink, E. B., Narasimhachari, N., and Himwich, H. E.: A test of the transmethylation hypotheses in acute schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 132: 1067–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McGrath, S. D., O’Brien, P. F., Power, P. J., and Shea, J. D. Nicotinamide treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1972, 5: 74–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Meltzer, H. Y. Neuromuscular dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2: 106–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Torrey, E. F., and Peterson, M. R. The viral hypothesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2: 136–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Durell, J., and Archer, E. G. Plasma proteins in schizophrenia: A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2: 147–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frohman, C. E., Harmison, C. R., Arthur, R. E., and Gottlieb, J. S. Conformation of a unique plasma protein in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 1971, 3: 113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heath, R. G. An antibrain globulin in schizophrenia. In: Biochemistry, Schizophrenias and Affective Illness, Himwich, H. E. (ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1971, 171–197.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wyatt, R. J., Potkin, S. G., and Murphy, D. L. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in schizophrenia: A review of the data. American journal of Psychiatry, 1979, 136: 377–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wyatt, R. J., Murphy, D. L., Belmaker, R., Cohen, S., Donnelly, C. H., and Pollin, W. Reduced monoamine oxidase in platelets: A possible genetic marker for vulnerability to schizophrenia. Science, 1973, 179: 916–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carpenter, W. T., Jr., Murphy, D. L., and Wyatt, R. J. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in acute schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 132: 438–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holzman, P. S., and Levy, D. L. Smooth pursuit eye movements and functional psychoses: A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 15–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ban, T. A., and Lehmann, H. E. Nicotinic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Part 2. Canadian Psychiatric Association journal, 1975, 20: 103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leff, D. N. Megavitamins and mental disease. Medical World News, August 11, 1975, 71–82.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Task Force Report 7: Megavitamin and orthomolecular therapy in psychiatry. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1973.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Spohn, H. E., and Patterson, T. Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1979, 5: 581–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Buchsbaum, M. S. Psychophysiology and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chapman, L. J. Recent advances in the study of schizophrenic cognition. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1979, 5: 568–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garmezy, N. The psychology and psychopathology of attention. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 360–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Matthysse, S. The biology of attention. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977,3: 370–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Itil, T. M. Qualitative and quantitative EEG findings in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 61–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Callaway, E., Tueting, P., and Koslow, S. Event-related potentials in man. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Buchsbaum, M. S. The middle evoked response components and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 93–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Roth, W. T. Late event-related potentials and psychopathology. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 105–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shagass, C. Early evoked potentials. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 80–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zahn, T. P. Autonomic nervous system characteristics possibly related to a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Venables, P. H. The electrodermal physiology of schizophrenics and children at risk for schizophrenia: Controversies and developments. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3: 28–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mednick, S. A., and Schulsinger, F. Some premorbid characteristics related to breakdown in children with schizophrenic mothers. In: The Transmission of Schizophrenia, Rosenthal, D., and Kety, S. S. (eds.). New York: Pergamon Press, Ltd., 1968, 267–291.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Franzen, G., and Ingvar, D.H. Abnormal distribution of cerebral activity in chronic schizophrenia, Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1975, 12: 199–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Monroe, R. R. Eposodic Behavioral Disorders: A Psychodynamic and Neurophysiologic Analysis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Landau, S. G., Buchsbaum, M. S., Carpenter, W. T., Str`uss, J. S., and Sacks, M. Schizophrenia and stimulus intensity control. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32: 1239–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coursey, R. D., Buchsbaum, M. S., and Murphy, D. L. Psychological characteristics of subjects identified by platelet MAO activity and evoked potentials as biologically at risk for psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1980, 89: 151–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zahn, T. P., Carpenter, W. T., Jr., and McGlashan, T, H. Autonomic nervous system activity in acute schizophrenia. II. Relationships to short term prognosis and clinical state. Archives of General Psychiatry, in press.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kety, S. S. Biochemical theories of schizophrenia. Part I. Science, 1959a, 129: 1528–1532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kety, S. S. Biochemical theories of schizophrenia. Part II. Science, 1959b, 129: 1590–1596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Watson, S. J., Akil, H., Berger, P. A., et al. Some observations on the opiate peptides and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1979, 36: 220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Snyder, S. H. The opiate receptor and morphine-like peptides in the brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1978, 135: 645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vereby, K., Volavka, J., and Clouet, D. Endorphins in psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1978, 35: 877–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Terenius, L., Wahlstrom, A., Lindstrom, L., and Widerlov, E. Increased CSF levels of endorphins in chronic psychosis. Neuroscience Letters, 1976, 3: 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gunne, L. M., Lundstrom, L., and Terenius, L. Naloxone-induced reversal of schizophrenic hallucinations. Journal of Neural Transmission, 1977, 40: 13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Davis, G. C, Bunney, W. E., DeFraites, E. G., Kleinman, J. E., Van Kämmen, D. P., Post, R. M., and Wyatt, R. J. Intravenous naloxone administration in schizophrenia and affective illness. Science, 1977, 197: 74–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Janowsky, D. S., Segal, D. S., Bloom, F., Abrams, A., and Guillemin, R. Lack of effect of naloxone on schizophrenic symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1977, 134: 926–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kurland, A. A., McCabe, O. L., Hanlon, T. H., and Sullivan, D. The treatment of perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia with naloxone hydrochloride. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1977, 134: 1408–1410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Volavka, J., Mallya, A., Baig, S., and Perez-Cruet, J. Naloxone in chronic schizophrenia. Science, 1977, 196: 1227–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Watson, S. J., Berger, P. A., Akil, H., Mills, J. J., and Barchas, J. D. Effects of naloxone on schizophrenia: Reduction in hallucinations in a subpopulation of subjects. Science, 1978, 201: 73–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kline, N. S., Li, C. H., Lehmann, H. E., Lajtha, A., Laski, E., and Cooper, T. Beta-endorphin-induced changes in schizophrenic and depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1977, 34: 111–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Berger, P. A., Watson, S. J., Akil, H., Elliott, G. R., Rubin, R. T., Pfefferbaum, A., Davis, K. L., Barchas, J. D., and Li, C.H. β-endorphin and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1980, 37: 635–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Strauss
    • 1
  • William T. CarpenterJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Yale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Maryland Psychiatric Research CenterUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations