Early Learning and Intelligence

  • John S. Watson
  • Richard D. Ewy

Abstract

There are three important ways that learning in infancy might be related to what could be termed an infant’s intelligence. For one, the infant’s ability to have and/or benefit from early learning experiences may be a function of the infant’s level of intelligence. Differences among infants in intelligence would be reflected in concurrent differences in infants’ performances in learning situations—the amount of learning, the form of learning, or the type of experience that results in learning. Observation of an infant’s learning could then be used to reveal something about the infant’s level of intelligence.

Keywords

Classical Conditioning Early Learning Intelligence Test Dispositional Property Instrumental Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anastasi, A. Differential psychology ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Macmillan, 1958.Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong, D. A. A materialist theory of the mind. New York: Humanities Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, A. L. The role of an “ability” construct in a theory of behavior. In D. C.Google Scholar
  4. McClelland, A. L. Baldwin, U. Bronfenbrenner, and F. L. Strodtbeck (Eds.), Talent and society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958.Google Scholar
  5. Bayley, N. Consistency and variability in the growth of intelligence from birth to eighteen years. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1949, 75, 165–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayley, N. Development of mental abilities. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1 ). New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  7. Brackbill, Y., and Koltsova, M. M. Conditioning and learning. In Y. Brackbill (Ed.), Infancy and early childhood. New York: Free Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  8. Brackbill, Y., Fitzgerald, H. E., and Lintz, L. M. A developmental study of classical conditioning. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1967, 32(Whole No. 8).Google Scholar
  9. Broman, S. H., Nichols, P. L., and Kennedy, W. A. Preschool IQ: Prenatal and early developmental correlates. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Caldwell, B. M., Heider, J., and Kaplan, B. The inventory of home stimulation. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Psychological Association, New York, September, 1966. (Available from the Center for Early Development and Education, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas 72204.)Google Scholar
  11. Carnap, R. Logical foundations of the unity of science. In International encyclopedia of unified science (Vol. 1, Part 1 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938.Google Scholar
  12. Dennis, W., and Sayegh, Y. The effect of supplementary experiences upon the behavioral development of infants in institutions. Child Development, 1965, 36, 81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duncanson, J. P. Intelligence and the ability to learn. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1964.Google Scholar
  14. Field, D. Comparison of the conservation acquisition of mentally retarded and non-retarded children. In M. P. Friedman, J. P. Das, and N. O’Connor (Eds.), Intelligence and learning. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  15. Fitzgerald, H. E., and Brackbill, Y. Classical conditioning in infancy: Development and constraints. Psychological Bulletin, 1976, 83, 353–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fitzgerald, H. E., and Porges, S. W. A decade of infant conditioning and learning research. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1971, 17, 79–117.Google Scholar
  17. Fowler, W. A developmental learning approach to infant care in a group setting. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 1972, 18, 145.Google Scholar
  18. Fowler, W., and Khan, N. A follow-up investigation of the later development of infants in enriched group care. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, April 1974. ( Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 093 506 )Google Scholar
  19. Friedlander, B. Z., Sterritt, G. M., and Kirk, G. E. (Eds.). Exceptional infant (Vol. 3): Assessment and intervention. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. GagnÉ R. M. The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965.Google Scholar
  21. Garber, H., and Heber, R. The Milwaukee Project: Early intervention as a technique to prevent mental retardation. Storrs, Ct.: University of Connecticut Technical Paper, 1973. Rice Document Reproduction Service No. ED 080 162 )Google Scholar
  22. Garrett, H. E. The relation of tests of memory and learning to each other and to general intelligence in a highly selected adult group. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1928, 19, 601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garrison, K. C. The correlation between intelligence test scores and success in certain rational organization problems. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1928, 12, 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grubman, D. Pretest stimulation effects upon infant developmental test performance. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1978.Google Scholar
  25. Hanson, R. Consistency and stability of home environmental measures related to IQ. Child Development, 1975, 46, 470–480.Google Scholar
  26. Heber, R., and Garber, H. An experiment in the prevention of cultural-familial mental retardation. Madison, Wisc.: Regional Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation, 1970. ( Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 059 762 )Google Scholar
  27. Heber, R. and Garber, H. The Milwaukee Project: A study of the use of family intervention to prevent cultural-familial mental retardation. In B. Z. Friedlander, G. M. Sterritt, and G. E. Kirk (Eds.), Exceptional infant (Vol. 3 ). New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. Heber, R., Garber, H., Harrington, S., Hoffman, C., and Falender, C. Rehabilitation of families at risk for mental retardation. Madison, Wisc.: Regional Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation, 1972. ( Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 087 142 )Google Scholar
  29. Heider, F. The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderson, B. A. Infant enrichment: The effects of a prescribed curriculum on cognitive development (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 38 (6—A), 3370.Google Scholar
  31. Hess, R. D., and Bear, R. M. (Eds.). Early education. Chicago: Aldine, 1968.Google Scholar
  32. Hulsebus, R. C. Operant conditioning of infant behavior: A review. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 8 ). New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  33. Hunt, J. McV. Intelligence and experience. New York: Ronald, 1961.Google Scholar
  34. Husband, R. W. Intercorrelations among learning abilities: Iii. The effects of age and spread of intelligence upon relationships. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1941, 58, 431.Google Scholar
  35. Jacobson, L., Berger, S., Bergman, R., Millham, J., and Greeson, L. Effects of age, sex, systematic conceptual learning, acquisition of learning sets, and programmed social interaction on the intellectual and conceptual development of preschool children from poverty backgrounds. Child Development, 1971, 42, 1399–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jensen, A. R. Cumulative deficit: A testable hypothesis? Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 996–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kagan, J., and Klein, R. E. Cross-cultural perspectives on early development. American Psychologist, 1973, 28, 947–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kagan, J., Klein, R. E., Finley, G. E., Rogoff, B., and Nolan, E. A cross-cultural study of cognitive development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1979, 44(Whole No. 5).Google Scholar
  39. Kinnie, E., and Sternlof, R. The influence of nonintellective factors on the IQ scores of middle-and lower-class children. Child Development, 1971, 42, 1989–1995.Google Scholar
  40. Lewis, M. A development study of information processing within the first three years of life: Response decrement to a redundant signal. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1969, 34(Whole No. 9).Google Scholar
  41. Lewis, M. Individual differences in the measurement of early cognitive growth. In J. Hellmuth (Ed.), Exceptional infant (Vol. 2 ). New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1971.Google Scholar
  42. Lewis, M. and Brooks-Gunn, J. Visual attention at three months as a predictor of cognitive functioning at two years of age. Intelligence, 1981, 5, 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lipsitt, L. P. Learning in the first year of life. In L. P. Lipsitt and C. C. Spiker (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 1 ). New York: Academic Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  44. Lipsitt, L. P. Learning capacities of the human infant. In R. J. Robinson (Ed.), Brain and early behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  45. Maccorquodale, K., and Meehl, P. E. Hypothetical constructs and intervening variables. Psychological Review, 1948, 55, 95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mackay, G. W. S., and Vernon, P. E. The measurement of learning ability. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1963, 33, 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marquis, D. P. Can conditioned responses be established in the newborn infant? Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1931, 39, 479–492.Google Scholar
  48. Mccall, R. B., Hogarty, P. S., and Hurlburt, N. Transitions in infant sensorimotor development and the prediction of childhood IQ. American Psychologist, 1972, 27, 728–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mccall, R. B., Eichorn, D. H., and Hogarty, P. S. Transitions in early mental develop-ment. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1977, 42(Whole No. 3).Google Scholar
  50. Metzl, M. Teaching parents a strategy for enhancing infant development. Child Develop-ment, 1980, 51, 583–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mussen, P. H., Conger, J. J., and Kagan, J. Child development and personality ( 5th ed. ). New York: Harper and Row, 1979.Google Scholar
  52. Papousek, H. A method of studying conditioned food reflexes in young children up to the age of six months. Pavlov Journal of Higher Nervous Activity, 1959, 9, 136–140.Google Scholar
  53. Papousek, H. Conditioning during early postnatal development. In Y. Brackbill and G. G.Google Scholar
  54. Thompson (Eds.), Behavior in infancy and early childhood. New York: Free Press, 1967. Piaget, J. The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  55. Ramey, C., and Smith, B. Assessing the intellectual consequences of early intervention with high-risk infants. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 81, 318–324.Google Scholar
  56. Rheingold, H. L. The modification of social responsiveness in institutionalized babies. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1956, 21(2).Google Scholar
  57. ROvEE-Collier, C. K., and Gekoski, M. J. The economics of infancy: A review of conjugate reinforcement. In H. W. Reese and L. P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 13 ). New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  58. Rovee-Collier, C. K., and Lipslrr, L. P. Learning, adaptation, and memory. In P. M. Statton (Ed.), Psychobiology of the human newborn, New York: Wiley, 1980.Google Scholar
  59. Ryle, G. The concept of mind. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1949.Google Scholar
  60. Sameroff, A. J. Can conditioned responses be established in the new-born infant? Developmental Psychology, 1971, 5, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sameroff, A. J., and Cavanaugh, P. J. Learning in infancy: A developmental perspective. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development. New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  62. Schaffer, H. R. The multivariate approach to early learning. In R. H. Hinde and J. Steven-son-Hinde (Eds.), Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions. New York Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  63. Schaffer, H. R., and Emerson, P. E. The effects of experimentally administered stimulation on developmental quotients of infants. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 7, 61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schulz, C. B., and Aurbach, H. A. The usefulness of cumulative deprivation as an explanation of educational deficiencies. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1971, 17, 27–39.Google Scholar
  65. Seltzer, R. The disadvantaged child and cognitive development in the early years. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1973, 19, 241–252.Google Scholar
  66. Simrall, D. Intelligence and the ability to learn. Journal of Psychology, 1947, 23, 27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stake, R. E. Learning parameters, aptitudes, and achievements. Psychometric Monographs, 1961, 9.Google Scholar
  68. Starr, R. Cognitive development in infancy: Assessment, acceleration, actualization. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1971, 17, 153.Google Scholar
  69. Stevenson, H. W. Learning in children. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1 ). New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  70. Stevenson, H. W., and Odom, R. D. Interrelationships in children’s learning. Child Development,1965, 36, 7.Google Scholar
  71. Stevenson, H. W., Hale, G. A., Klein, R. E., and Miller, L. K. Interrelations and correlates in children’s learning and problem solving. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1968, 33(7).Google Scholar
  72. Vernon, P. E. Intelligence: Heredity and environment. San Francisco: Freeman, 1979.Google Scholar
  73. Vygotsky, L. S. Mind in society. M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, and E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  74. Watson, J. B. Behaviorism (Rev. ed.). New York: Norton, 1930.Google Scholar
  75. Watson, J. S. The development and generalization of “contingency awareness” in early infancy: Some hypotheses. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1966, 12, 123.Google Scholar
  76. Watson, J. S. Memory and “contingency analysis” in infant learning. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1967, 13, 55.Google Scholar
  77. Watson, J. S. Early infant learning: Some roles and measures of memory, thinking, and trying. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the British Psychological Society, Bangor, North Wales, 1974.Google Scholar
  78. Watson, J. S. Perception of contingency as a determinant of social responsiveness. In E. Thoman (Ed.), The origins of social responsiveness. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1979.Google Scholar
  79. Weissman, D. Dispositional properties. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  80. White, B. L. Informal education during the first months of life. In R. D. Hess and R. M. Bear (Eds.), Early education. Chicago: Aldine, 1968.Google Scholar
  81. White, B. L. Child development research: An edifice without a foundation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1969, 15, 50.Google Scholar
  82. White, B. L. Human infants: Experience and psychological development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Watson
    • 1
  • Richard D. Ewy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations