Effects of HIV-1 and HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins on Signaling Pathways in Human T Lymphocytes
HIV-1 infection is unique with regard to immune responses, in which there is evidence for immune paradox, i. e., both immune activation and immune suppression. Immune stimulation is evident by elevated levels of various cytokines and hyperimmunoglobulinemia, whereas immune suppression is associated with quantitative and qualitative deficiency of T cells, especially of CD4+ T cells (reviewed in Fauci, 1988). It appears that HIV-1 or its envelope glycoproteins (gp160, gp120) can induce these paradoxical changes by various mechanisms, including blocking CD4-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II interaction and by altering signal transduction pathway. In this chapter, I will review the role of HIV-1 and its glycoproteins in activation and downregulation of signaling pathways in human T cells.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Tyrosine Phosphorylation Protein Tyrosine Kinase Envelope Glycoprotein
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