Diagnostic Classification Systems in Child Psychopathology

  • Juan E. Mezzich
  • Ada C. Mezzich
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

Several key conceptual and methodological developments on psychopathological evaluation and diagnosis have taken place since the mid-1960s. These developments are reviewed first to pave the way for the delineation and discussion of specific diagnostic systems. These include standard systems of paramount importance, such as the current version of the World Health Organization’s (1978) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) and the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Also considered are diagnostic systems specifically developed for children and adolescents. Finally, a note is presented about prospective systems, such as the revised DSM-III and ICD-10.

Keywords

Personality Disorder Conduct Disorder Child Psychopathology Research Diagnostic Criterion Gender Identity Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1966). The classification of children’s psychiatric symptoms: A factor analytic study. Psychological Monographs, 80, Whole No. 615.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1980). DSM-III in light of empirical research on the classification of child psychopathology. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19, 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd. ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Anthony, E. J. (1970). The behavior disorders of childhood. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Charmichael’s manual of child psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 667–764. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Brockington, I. F., Kendall, R. E., & Leff, J. P. (1978). Definitions of schizophrenia: Concordance and prediction of outcome. Psychological Medicine, 8, 387–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, J. E., Kendell, R. E., Gurland, B. J., Sharpe, L., Copeland, J. R. M., & Simmon, R. (1972). Psychiatric diagnosis in New York and London. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Essen-Möller, E. (1961). On classification of mental disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 37, 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Essen-Möller, E. (1971). Suggestions for further improvement of international classification of mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 1, 308–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Essen-Möller, E., Wohlfahrt, S. (1947). Suggestions for the amendment of the official Swedish classification of mental disorders, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement, 47, 551–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feinstein, A. R. (1967). Clinical judgment. Huntingon, NY: Robert E. Krieger.Google Scholar
  13. Freud, A. (1965). Normality and Pathology in Childhood. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ganguli, M., & Saul, M. C. (1982). On the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (letter to the editor). Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1442–1443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Psychopathological disorders in childhood: Theoretical considerations and a proposed classification. GAP Report No. 62.Google Scholar
  16. Helmchen, H. (1975). Schizophrenia: Diagnostic concepts in the ICD-8. In M. H. Lader (Ed.), Studies in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, Special Publication, No. 10, 10-18.Google Scholar
  17. Hempel, C. (1965). Aspects of scientific explanation. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hewitt, L. E., & Jenkins, R. L. (1946). Fundmental patterns of maladjustment: The dynamics of their origin. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois.Google Scholar
  19. Isager, T. (1982). Multiaxial diagnostic system in a department of child psychiatry. Preliminary experience as an introduction to revision. Ugeskr-Laeger, 144, 400–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jablensky, A. (In press). An overview of the prospects for ICD-10. In J. E. Mezzich & M. von Cranach (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kato, M. (1977). Multiaxial diagnosis in adult psychiatry. Paper presented at the Sixth World Congress of Psychiatry, Honolulu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  22. Kendell, R. E. (1975). The role of diagnosis in psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Kramer, M. (In press). Historical roots and structural bases of the International Classification of Diseases. In J. E. Mezzich (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kreisler, L. (1977). Psychopathology of infancy: A nosological regrouping. Psychiatrie de L’enfant (Paris), 20, 521–532.Google Scholar
  25. Mezzich, A. C. (1982). Exploring diagnostic formulations for violent delinquent adolescents: Conceptual considerations. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 10, 15–23.Google Scholar
  26. Mezzich, A. C., & Mezzich, J. E. (1985). Perceived suitability and usefulness of DSM-III vs. DSM-II in child psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mezzich, J. E. (1979). Patterns and issues in multiaxial psychiatric diagnosis. Psychological Medicine, 9, 125–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mezzich, J. E. (1984). Multiaxial diagnostic systems in psychiatry. In H. Kaplan & B. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (4th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  29. Mezzich, J. E., Dow, J. T., & Coffman, G. A. (1981a). Developing an efficient clinical information system for a comprehensive psychiatric institute: 1. Principles, design, and organization. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 13, 459–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mezzich, J. E., Dow, J. T., Rich, C. L., Costello, A. J., & Himmelhoch, J. M. (1981b). Developing an efficient clinical information system for a comprehensive psychiatric institute: 2. Initial evaluation form. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 13, 464–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ottosson, J. O., & Perris, C. (1973). Multidimensional classification of mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 3, 238–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raven, P. H., Berlin, B., & Breedlove, D. E. (1971). The origins of taxonomy. Science, 174, 1210–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robins, L. N., Heizer, J. E., Croughan, J., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rocha, Z. (1977). Child behavior disorders in daily practice (a multidimensional diagnostic approach). Neurobiologia (Recife) (Brazil), 40, 269–296.Google Scholar
  35. Rutter, M., & Shaffer, D. (1980). DSM-III: A step forward or back in terms of the classification of child psychiatric disorders? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19, 371–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rutter, M., Lebovici, S., Eisenbert, L., Sneznevskij, A. V., Sadoun, R., Brooke, E., & Lin, T. Y. (1969). A tri-axial classification of mental disorders in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10, 41–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rutter, M., Shaffer, D., & Shepherd, M. (1975). A multiaxial classification of child psychiatric disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  38. Rutter, M., Shaffer, D., & Sturge, C. (1975). A guide to a multiaxial classification scheme for psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. London: Institute of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  39. Sadoun, R., Casadebaig, F., & Hatton, F. (1976). Studies of the infant population placed in charge of the A. Binet Mental Health Center in 1970 and 1971. Social Psychiatry (Berlin), 11, 179–205.Google Scholar
  40. Spiel, W. (1981). Some critical comments on a systematic approach to diagnosis: Contribution to a documentation and classification system in child neuropsychiatry. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 47, 269–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. R. (In press). The revision of DSM-III: Process and innovations. In J. E. Mezzich & M. von Cranach (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Stengel, E. (1959). Classification of mental disorders. Bulletin of W.H.O., 21, 601–663.Google Scholar
  44. Strauss, J. S. (1973). Diagnostic models and the nature of psychiatric disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 445–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Strauss, J. S. (1975). A comprehensive approach to psychiatric diagnosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1193–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Strauss, J. S., & Gift, T. E. (1977). Choosing an approach for diagnosing schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1248–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tarjan, G., Tizard, J., & Rutter, M., et al. (1972). Classification and mental retardation: Issues arising in the fifth W.H.O. Seminar of Psychiatric Diagnoses, Classification and Statistics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128 (Suppl.), 34–45.Google Scholar
  48. Tseng, W., & McDermott, J., Jr. (1979). Tri-axial family classification. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 18, 22–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. (1978). The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Ann Arbor, MI: Author.Google Scholar
  50. von Cranach, M. (1977). Categorical vs. multiaxial classification. Paper presented at the Sixth World Congress of Psychiatry, Honolulu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  51. von Knorring, L., Penis, C., & Jacobsson, L. (1978). A multi-aspects classification of mental disorders: Experiences from clinical routine work and preliminary studies of inter-rater reliability. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 58, 401–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ward, C. H., Beck, A. T., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. E., & Erbaugh, J. K. (1962). The psychiatric nomenclature: Reasons for diagnostic disagreement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 7, 198–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Werry, J. S. (1985). ICD-9 and DSM-III classification for the clinician. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Werry, J. W., Methven, R. J., Fitzpatrick, J., & Dixon, H. (1983). The interrator reliability of DSM-III in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 341–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wing, L. (1970). Observations on the psychiatric section of the International Classification of Diseases and the British Glossary of Mental Disorders. Psychological Medicine, 1, 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E., & Sartorius, N. (1974). The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organization. (1973). Report of the International Study of Schizophrenia (Vol. 1). Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  58. Zubin, J. (1961). Field studies in the mental disorders. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan E. Mezzich
    • 1
  • Ada C. Mezzich
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations