Visual Impairment

  • Vincent B. Van Hasselt
  • Lori A. Sisson
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

The past decade has witnessed a marked increase in clinical, educational, vocational, and research endeavors with the blind and visually impaired (see Biglan, Van Hasselt, & Simon, in press; Boyd & Otos, 1982; Warren, 1977, 1981). The heightened activity in this area is in response to the fact that nearly 11.5 million persons in the United States have some form of visual impairment, according to national health surveys (National Society to Prevent Blindness, 1980). Approximately 500,000 of these individuals are legally blind. Further, it is estimated that almost 37,000 children and youth in this country have this diagnosis, with about one-third being totally blind.

Keywords

Social Skill Visual Impairment Handicapped Child Handicapped Person Handicapped Individual 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (Eds.). (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Profile. New York: Queen City Printers.Google Scholar
  2. Adelson, E., & Fraiberg, S. (1974). Gross motor development in infants blind from birth. Child Development, 45, 114–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ammerman, R. T., Van Hasselt, V. B., & Hersen, M. (1985). Social skills training for visually handicapped children: A treatment manual. Psychological Documents, 15.Google Scholar
  4. Barraga, N. C. (1983). Visual handicaps and learning (rev. ed.). Austin, TX: Exceptional Resources.Google Scholar
  5. Barry, H., Jr., & Marshall, F. E. (1953). Maladjustment and maternal rejection in retrolental fibroplasia. Mental Hygiene, 37, 570–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bateman, B. (1965). Psychological evaluation of blind children. New Outlook for the Blind, 59, 193–197.Google Scholar
  7. Bauman, M. K. (1971a). Special considerations for assessment of the blind client. In G. D. Carnes, C. E. Hansen, & R. M. Parker (Eds.), Readings in rehabilitation of the blind client (pp. 33-38). Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauman, M. K. (1971b). Tests and their interpretation. In G. D. Carnes, C. E. Hansen, & R. M. Parker (Eds.), Readings in rehabilitation of the blind client. Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauman, M. K. (1972). Special problems in the psychological evaluation of blind persons. In R. D. Hardy, & J. G. Cull (Eds.), Social and rehabilitation services for the blind (pp. 218–225). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  10. Bauman, M. K. (1973). Psychological and educational assessment. In B. Lowenfeld (Ed.), The visually handicapped child in school. New York: John Day.Google Scholar
  11. Bauman, M. K., & Kröpf, C. A. (1979). Psychological tests used with blind and visually handicapped persons. School Psychology Digest, 8, 257–270.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, R. E. (1983). Research and evaluation priorities for special education assessment. Exceptional Children, 50, 110–117.Google Scholar
  13. Biglan, A., Van Hasselt, V. B., & Simon, J. (in press). Visual impairment. In V. B. Van Hasselt, P. S. Strain, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of developmental and physical disabilities. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  14. Blank, H. R. (1959). Psychiatric problems associated with congenital blindness due to retrolental fibroplasia. New Outlook for the Blind, 53, 237–244.Google Scholar
  15. Bonfanti, B. H. (1979). Effects of training on nonverbal and verbal behaviors of congenitally blind adults. Journal of Visual Impairment Blindness, 73, 1–9.Google Scholar
  16. Boyd, R. D., & Otos, M. (1981). Visual handicaps. In J. E. Lindemann (Ed.), Psychological and behavioral aspects of physical disability. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, P. A. (1939). To be blind in a sighted world. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 34, 5–30.Google Scholar
  18. Bullard, B., & Barraga, N. C. (1971). Subtests of evaluative instruments applicable for use with preschool visually handicapped children. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 3, 116–122.Google Scholar
  19. Conley, O. S., & Wolery, M. R. (1980). Treatment by overcorrection of self-injurious eye gouging in preschool blind children. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 11, 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coveny, T. E. (1972). A new test for the visually handicapped: Preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of the Perkins-Binet. Education of the Handicapped, 4, 97–101.Google Scholar
  21. Cowen, E. L., Pederson, A., Babigian, H., Izzo, L. D., & Trost, M. A. (1973). Long-term follow-up of early detected vulnerable children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 438–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cruickshank, W. M. (1964). The multiple-handicapped child and courageous action. International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 13, 65–75.Google Scholar
  23. Cutsforth, T. D. (1932). The unreality of words to the blind. Teachers Forum, 4, 86–89.Google Scholar
  24. Dauterman, W. L., Shapiro, B., & Suinn, R. M. (1967). Performance tests of intelligence for the blind reviewed. International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 17, 8–16.Google Scholar
  25. Davis, C. (1980). Perkins-Binet Tests of Intelligence for the blind. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind.Google Scholar
  26. Denton, L. R. (1954, December). Intelligence test performance and personality differences in a group of visually handicapped children. Bulletin of Maritime Psychological Association, 47-50.Google Scholar
  27. Doll, E. A. (1953). The measurement of social competence. Minneapolis: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  28. Drabman, R. S., Ross, J. M., Lynd, R. S., & Cordua, G. D. (1978). Retarded children as observers, mediators, and generalization programmers using an icing procedure. Behavior Modification, 2, 371–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eaglestein, A. S. (1975). The social acceptance of blind high school students in an integrated school. New Outlook for the Blind, 69, 447–451.Google Scholar
  30. Eisler, R. M., Hersen, M., Miller, P. M., & Blanchard, E. B. (1975). Situational determinants of assertive behaviors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 330–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellis, D. (1978). Methods of assessment for use with the visually handicapped and mentally handicapped: A selective review. Child: Care, Health and Development, 4, 397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farkas, G. M., Sherick, R. B., Matson, J. L., & Loebig, M. (1981). Social skills training of a blind child through differential reinforcement. The Behavior Therapist, 4, 24–26.Google Scholar
  33. Fraiberg, S. (1977). Insights from the blind: Comparative studies of blind and sighted infants. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Freedman, D. G. (1964). Smiling in blind infants and the issue of innate vs. acquired characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 171–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gilbert, J. G., & Rubin, E. J. (1965). Evaluating the intellect of blind children. New Outlook for the Blind, 59, 238–240.Google Scholar
  36. Goldfried, M. R., & D’Zurilla, T. A. (1969). A behavior-analytic model for assessing competence. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Current topics in clinical and community Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 151–196). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Goldman, H. (1970). Psychological testing of blind children. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin, 21, 77–90.Google Scholar
  38. Hammill, D. D., Crandell, J. M., & Colarusso, R. (1970). The Slosson Intelligence Test adapted for visually limited children. Exceptional Children, 36, 535–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hansen, R., Young, J., & Ulrey, G. (1982). Assessment considerations with the visually handicapped child. In G. Ulrey & S. Rogers (Eds.), Psychological assessment of handicapped infants and young children, (pp. 108–114). New York: Thieme-Stratton.Google Scholar
  40. Hardy, R. D. (1968). A study of manifest anxiety among blind residential school students. New Outlook for the Blind, 62, 173–180.Google Scholar
  41. Harris, S. L., & Romanczyk, R. G. (1976). Treating self-injurious behavior of a retarded child by overcorrection. Behavior Therapy, 7, 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hastings, H. J. (1947). An investigation of some aspects of the personality of the blind. Unpublished manuscript, University of California.Google Scholar
  43. Hayes, S. P. (1929). The new revision of the Binet Intelligence Tests for the blind. Teachers Forum, 2, 2–4.Google Scholar
  44. Hayes, S. P. (1943). A second scale for the mental measurement of the visually handicapped. The New Outlook for the Blind, 37, 37–41.Google Scholar
  45. Hayes, S. P. (1950). The visually handicapped. American Psychologist, 5, 339–340.Google Scholar
  46. Hecht, P. J., & Newland, T. E. (1965). Learning potential and learning achievement of educationally blind third-eight graders in a residential school. International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 15, 1–6.Google Scholar
  47. Hepfinger, L. M. (1962). Psychological evaluation of young blind children. New Outlook for the Blind, 56, 309–315.Google Scholar
  48. Hoover, R. E., & Bledsoe, C. W. (1981). Blindness and visual impairments. In W. C. Stolov & M. R. Clowers (Eds.), Handbook of severe disability (pp. 377–391). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  49. Hopkins, K. D., & McGuire, L. (1966). Mental measurement of the blind: The validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 15, 65–73.Google Scholar
  50. Hopkins, K. D., & McGuire, L. (1967). IQ constancy and the blind child. International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 16, 113–114.Google Scholar
  51. Hops, H., Wills, T., Patterson, G., & Weiss, R. (1972). Marital Interaction Coding Systems. Unpublished manuscript, University of Oregon Research Institute.Google Scholar
  52. Irwin, R. B. (1914). A Binet scale for the blind. New Outlook for the Blind, 8, 95–97.Google Scholar
  53. Jan, J. E., Freeman, R. D., & Scott, E. P. (Eds.). (1977). Visual impairment in children and adolescents. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  54. Joffe, P. E., & Bast, B. A. (1978). Coping and defense in relation to accommodation among a sample of blind men. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 537–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kleck, R. E., Ono, H., & Hastorf, A. H. (1966). The effect of physical deviance upon face-to-face interaction. Human Relations, 19, 425–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Langley, M. B. (1979). Psychoeducational assessment of the multiply handicapped blind child: Issues and methods. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 10, 97–114.Google Scholar
  57. Lewis, L. L. (1957). The relation of measured mental ability to school marks and academic survival in the Texas School for the Blind. International Journal of Education of the Blind, 66, 56–60.Google Scholar
  58. Matas, L., Arend, R. A., & Sroufe, L. A. (1978). Continuity of adaptation in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Child Development, 49, 547–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., & Helsel, W. J. (1983). Development of a rating scale to measure social skills in children: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 335–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Matson, J. L., Heinze, A., Helsel, W. J., Kapperman, G., & Rotatori, A. F. (in press). Assessing social behaviors in the visually handicapped: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY). Journal of Clinical Child Psychology.Google Scholar
  61. Maxfield, K. E., & Buchholz, S. (1958). The Maxfield Scale of Social Maturity for use with preschool blind children. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  62. Maxfield, K. E., & Fjeld, H. A. (1942). The social maturity of the visually handicapped preschool child. Child Development, 13, 1–27.Google Scholar
  63. McGuinness, R. M. (1970). A descriptive study of blind children educated in the itinerant teacher resource room, and special school setting. Research Bulletin, American Foundation for the Blind, 20, 1–56.Google Scholar
  64. McKay, B. E. (1936). Social maturity of the preschool blind child. Training School Bulletin, 33, 146–155.Google Scholar
  65. Morse, J. (1971). The adaptation of a nonverbal abstract reasoning test for use with the blind: Review of related research and bibliography. Research Bulletin, American Foundation for the Blind, 23, 26–30.Google Scholar
  66. National Society for the Prevention of Blindness. (1966). N.S.P.B. fact book: Estimated statistics on blindness and visual problems. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  67. National Society to Prevent Blindness. (1980). Visual problems in the U.S.: Facts and figures. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  68. Newland, T. E. (1979). The blind learning aptitude test. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 73, 134–139.Google Scholar
  69. Nolan, C. Y. (1962). Evaluting the scholastic achievement of visually handicapped children. Exceptional Children, 28, 493–496.Google Scholar
  70. Petrucci, D. (1953). The blind child and his adjustment. New Outlook for the Blind, 47, 240–246.Google Scholar
  71. Reardon, R. C., Hersen, M., Bellack, A. S., & Foley, J. M. (1979). Measuring social skills in grade school boys. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 1, 87–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reich, W., Herjanic, G., Welner, Z., & Gandhy, P. R. (1982). Development of a structured interview for children: Agreement on diagnosis comparing child and parent interviews. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 325–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rich, C. C., & Anderson, R. P. (1965). A tactile form of the progressive matrics for use with blind children. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 43, 912–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Richardson, S. A. (1969). The effect of physical disability on the socialization of a child. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 1047–1064). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  75. Roff, M. (1961). Childhood social interactions and young adult bad conduct. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 333–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rutter, M., & Graham, P. (1968). The reliability and validity of the psychiatric assessment of the child: I. Interview with the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 563–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sanders, R. M., & Goldberg, S. G. (1977). Eye contacts: Increasing their rate in social interactions. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 71, 265–267.Google Scholar
  78. Sargent, R. F. (1931). The Otis Classification Test, Form A, Part II, adapted for use with classes of blind children. Teachers Forum, 4, 30–33.Google Scholar
  79. Sattler, J. M. (1982). Assessment of children’s intelligence and special abilities (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  80. Scholl, G., & Schnur, R. (1976). Measure of psychological, vocational, and educational functioning in the blind and visually handicapped. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  81. Schurrager, H. C. (1961). A haptic intelligence scale for adult blind. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  82. Schurrager, H. C., & Schurrager, P. S. (1964). Manual for the Haptic Intelligence Scale for the Blind. Chicago: Psychological Research Technology Center, Illinois Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  83. Scott, R. A. (1969). The socialization of blind children. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 1025–1045). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  84. Sommers, V. S. (1944). The influence of parental attitudes and social environment on the personality development of the adolescent blind. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  85. Spungin, S. J., & Swallow, R. M. (1975). Psychoeducational assessment: Role of the psychologist to teacher of the visually handicapped. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 1, 67–76.Google Scholar
  86. Suinn, R. M., Dauterman, W. L., & Shapiro, B. (1966). The Stanford-Ohwaki-Kohs Tactile Block Design Intelligence Test for the Blind. The New Outlook for the Blind, 60, 77.Google Scholar
  87. Swallow, R. M. (1981). Fifty assessment instruments commonly used with blind and partially seeing individuals. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 75, 65–72.Google Scholar
  88. Taylor, J. L. (1973). Educational programs. In B. Lowenfeld (Ed.), The visually handicapped child in school (pp. 155–182). New York: John Day.Google Scholar
  89. Teare, J. F., & Thompson, R. W. (1982). Concurrent validity of the Perkins-Binet tests of intelligence for the blind. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 76, 279–280.Google Scholar
  90. Tillman, H. M. (1967a). The performance of blind and sighted children on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Study I. The International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 16, 106–112.Google Scholar
  91. Tillman, H. M. (1967b). The performances of blind and sighted children on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Study II. International Journal for the Education of the Blind, 16, 65–74.Google Scholar
  92. Tillman, H. M. (1973). Intelligence scales for the blind: A review with implications for research. Journal of School Psychology, 11, 80–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tillman, H. M., & Osborne, R. T. (1969). The performance of blind and sighted children on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Interaction effects. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 1, 1–4.Google Scholar
  94. Trismen, D. A. (1967). Equating braille forms of the sequential tests of educational progress. Exceptional Children, 66, 419–424.Google Scholar
  95. Vander Kolk, C. J. (1977). Intelligence testing for visually impaired persons. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 71, 158–163.Google Scholar
  96. Van Hasselt, V. B. (1983). Social adaptation in the blind. Clinical Psychology Review, 3, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Hasselt, V. B. (1987). Behavior therapy for visually handicapped persons. In M. Hersen, P. Miller, & R. M. Eisler (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 1). New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  98. Van Hasselt, V. B., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., Simon, J., & Mastantuono, A. K. (1983). Training blind adolescents in social skills. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 77, 199–203.Google Scholar
  99. Van Hasselt, V. B., Hersen, M., & Kazdin, A. E. (1985). Assessment of social skills in visually handicapped adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 53–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Van Hasselt, V. B., Kazdin, A. E., Hersen, M., Simon, J., & Mastantuono, A. K. (1985). A behavioral-analytic model for assessing social skills in blind adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 395–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Hasselt, V. B., Hersen, M., Moore, L. E., & Simon, J. (1986). Assessment and treatment of families with visually handicapped children: A project description. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 80, 633–635.Google Scholar
  102. Van Hasselt, V. B., Kazdin, A. E., & Hersen, M. (1986). Assessment of problem behavior in visually handicapped adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 134–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ward, M. E., & Genshaft, J. (1982). A review of the Perkins-Binet tests of intelligence for the blind with suggestions for administration. School Psychology Review, 11, 338–341.Google Scholar
  104. Ward, M. E., & Genshaft, J. (1983). The Perkins-Binet Tests: A critique and recommendations for administration. Exceptional Children, 49, 450–452.Google Scholar
  105. Warren, D. H. (1977). Blindness and early childhood development. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  106. Warren, D. H. (1981). Visual impairments. In J. M. Kauffman & D. P. Hallahan (Eds.), Handbook of special education (pp. 195–221). Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  107. Wechsler, D. (1949). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  108. Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  109. Wechsler, D. (1967). Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  110. Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (rev.). New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  111. Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (rev.). New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  112. Weiss, R. (1980). The Areas of Change Questionnaire. Marital Studies Program, University of Oregon, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  113. Weiss, R., & Margolin, G. (1977). Marital conflict and accord. In A. Ciminero, K. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment (pp. 555–602). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  114. Zahran, H. A. S. (1965). A study of personality differences between blind and sighted children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 35, 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent B. Van Hasselt
    • 1
  • Lori A. Sisson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorUniversity of CaliforniaIrvine, OrangeUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations