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Viral Gastroenteritis

  • Albert Z. Kapikian
Chapter
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Abstract

Viral gastroenteritis, with diarrhea or vomiting or both as its major clinical manifestation, affects a broad segment of the population throughout the world. In the developed countries, it is a major cause of morbidity in infants and young children, whereas in the developing countries, it is a major cause of both morbidity and mortality in this same age group.(33) In the Cleveland Family Study, which included some 25,000 illnesses over an approximate 10-year period, infectious gastroenteritis (considered nonbacterial) was the second most common disease experience, accounting for 16% of all illnesses, averaging 1.5 episodes per person per year.(126) It is remarkable that the frequency of episodes was found to be quite similar (1.2–1.9 per person/year) in surveys carried out 20 or 30 years later.(224,393,394) In addition, a winter survey of a sample of US physicians engaged in pediatric practice revealed that gastrointestinal (GI) disturbance was the second most common disease for which children were brought to the physicians’ offices, being responsible for 9.5% of all visits.(7) Although deaths from diarrheal illnesses are not a major public health problem in the United States today, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimated that between 1979 and 1984, 209,000 infants and young children were hospitalized with a diarrheal illness.(247) This resulted in 877,800 inpatient days (4.2 days per hospitalization). In addition, they estimated that between 1973 and 1983, there were an average of 504 deaths annually from diarrheal illness in children 1 month to 5 years of age and that this comprised 2% of the postneonatal deaths in infants 1 to < 12 months of age. In addition, 79% of these deaths occurred before 1 year of age.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Z. Kapikian
    • 1
  1. 1.Epidemiology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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