Quantum Computing: Bending the Fabric of Reality Itself
Semiconductors have come a long way since the days of the vacuum tube. It is hard to believe that the transistor today is around 14 nanometers in size (i.e., close to a molecule). In this chapter you will learn about the origins of quantum computing starting with the fate of the transistor. It seems that the semiconductor process and the transistor are in a collision course with the laws of physics. Next, an in-depth look at the basic component of a quantum computer: the qubit including the strange effects of superposition, entanglement, and qubit manipulation using logic gates. Furthermore, qubit design is an important topic, and this chapter describes the leading prototypes by major IT companies including pros and cons of each.