• Michael Schwartz
  • Maciej Machulak


By the late 1990s, people were starting to get tired of entering the same username and password on different websites. LDAP helped organizations implement “single-password,” but didn’t enable web “single sign-on” (SSO). While some vendors were offering solutions for web SSO, SAML—the Security Assertion Markup Language—emerged as one of the first standards to enable a person to authenticate once and access websites both inside and outside their organization. The use case of a person accessing websites outside their home domain came to be known as identity federation. And the protocols that enable this are known as federation protocols.

Copyright information

© Michael Schwartz, Maciej Machulak 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Schwartz
    • 1
  • Maciej Machulak
    • 2
  1. 1.AustinUSA
  2. 2.LondonUK

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