Lower Lumbar and Sacral Projections of Caudal Medullary Expiratory Neurons in the Cat

  • Sei-Ichi Sasaki
  • Hiroyuki Uchino
  • Yoshio Uchino

Abstract

Respiratory rhythmogenesi’s is organized in the brain stem and respiratory rhythm is then transmitted to the spinal respiratory motoneurons. Expiratory (E) neurons in the caudal nucleus retroambigualis are bulbospinal neurons1 and have axonal branches in the thoracic and the upper lumbar spinal cord2, 3, 4. E neurons exert synaptic effects to the internal intercostal and the abdominal motoneurons monosynaptically and/or via interneurons3, 5, 6. Recently, the autoradiographic tracing method have revealed a projection from the region of the nucleus retroambigualis to the nucleus of Onuf in the sacral spinal cord. In the present experiments, we have examined the lower lumbar (L6–L7) and sacral (S1–S3) spinal projections of physiological identified caudal medullary expiratory neurons.

Keywords

Phrenic Nerve Spinal Projection Lumbar Spinal Cord2 Lower Lumbar Antidromic Activation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sei-Ichi Sasaki
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Uchino
    • 2
  • Yoshio Uchino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyTokyo Medical CollegeTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyTokyo Medical CollegeTokyo 160Japan

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