Human Ecology, Sociology, and Demography

  • Dudley L. PostonJr.
  • W. Parker Frisbie
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE)

Abstract

In 1934, R. D. McKenzie published an essay entitled “The Field and Problems of Demography, Human Geography, and Human Ecology” in the book, The Fields and Methods of Sociology, edited by L. L. Bernard. In his essay, McKenzie endeavored to show that, for purposes of scientific study, the human community could be viewed as demographic, geographic, or ecological, depending on the orientation and goals of the investigation. If concern was with the human community as a population aggregate, the community would be delineated demographically. If the relation between the population and its physical habitat was the focus of analysis, the community would be defined geographically. If studied as a symbiotic unity, the community would be described ecologically. Although McKenzie’s goal was to distinguish among these three different ways of studying the human community, our purpose here is to outline in a general manner the ecological orientation to the human community and then to show the sociological significance of the ecological orientation for the study of the demographic process of migration (see Namboodiri 1988 and 1994 for other, although not dissimilar, treatments).

Keywords

American Sociological Review Capital Expenditure Human Ecology Ecological Orientation Interstate Highway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berry, Brian, and Kasarda, John. (1977). Contemporary urban ecology. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Briggs, Ronald. (1980). The impact of interstate highway system on nonmetropolitan growth, Final Report. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.Google Scholar
  3. Castells, Manuel. (1979). The urban question: A Marxist approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Cooley, Charles Horton. ([1894] 1930 ). The Theory of Transportation. In Robert C. Angell (Ed.), Sociological theory and social research (pp. 75–83 ). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  5. DeAre, D., and Poston, Jr., D. L. (1973). Texas population in 1970: Trends and variations in the populations of nonmetropolitan towns. Texas Business Review, 47, 1–6.Google Scholar
  6. Dickinson, Robert E. (1964). City and region. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  7. Duncan, Otis Dudley. (1959). Human ecology and population studies. In Philip M. Hauser and Otis D. Duncan (Eds.), The study of population (pp. 678–716 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Duncan, Otis Dudley. (1964). Social organization and the ecosystem. In R. E. L. Faris (Ed.), Handbook of modern sociology (pp. 37–82 ). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  9. Duncan, O. D., Scott, R. W., Lieberson, S., Duncan, B., and Winsborough, H. H. (1960). Metropolis and region. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  10. Duncan, Beverly, Sabagh, G., and VanArsdol, M. (1962). Patterns of city growth. American Journal of Sociology, 67, 418–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Durkheim, Emile. ([1893] 1960 ). The division of labor in society. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Eberstein, Isaac W., and Frisbie, W. Parker. (1982). Metropolitan function and interdependence in the U.S. urban system. Social Forces, 60, 676–700.Google Scholar
  13. Frisbie, W. Parker, and Clarke, Clifford J. (1979). Technology in evolutionary and ecological perspective: Theory and measurement at the societal level. Social Forces, 58, 591–613.Google Scholar
  14. Frisbie, W. Parker, and Martin, W. A. (1973). Texas population in 1970: Trends in county population gain and loss. Texas Business Review, 47, 188–196.Google Scholar
  15. Frisbie, W. Parker, and Poston, Jr., Dudley L. (1975). Components of sustenance organization and nonmetropolitan population change: A human ecological investigation. American Sociological Review, 40, 773–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frisbie, W. Parker, and Poston, Jr., Dudley L. (1978). Sustenance organization and migration in nonmetropolitan America. Iowa City: Iowa Urban Community Research Center University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  17. Fuguitt, Glenn V. (1971). The places left behind: Population trends and policy for rural America. Rural Sociology, 36, 449–470.Google Scholar
  18. Fuguitt, Glenn V., and Beale, Calvin L. (1976). Population change in nonmetropolitan cities and towns, Agricultural Economic Report No. 323, Economic Research Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  19. Fuguitt, Glenn V., and Thomas, Donald W. (1966). Small town growth in the United States: An analysis by size, class, and place. Demography, 3, 513–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gauthier, H. L. (1970). Geography, transportation, and regional development. Economic Geography, 46, 612–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gibbs, Jack P., and Martin, Walter T. (1959). Toward a theoretical system of human ecology. Pacific Sociological Review, 2, 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gibbs, Jack P., and Poston, Jr., Dudley L. (1975). The division of labor: Conceptualization and related measures. Social Forces, 53, 468–476.Google Scholar
  23. Gober, Patricia. (1993). Americans on the move. Population Bulletin, 48, 1–38.Google Scholar
  24. Guest, Avery M. (1973). Urban growth and population densities. Demography, 10, 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guest, Avery M. (1978). Suburban social status: Persistence or evolution? American Sociological Review, 43, 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hathaway, D. E., Beegle, J. A., and Bryant, W. K. (1968). People of rural America. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  27. Hawley, Amos H. (1950). Human ecology: A theory of community structure. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hawley, Amos H. (1968). Human ecology. In D. L. Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (pp. 323–332 ). New York: Crowell, Collier, and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Hawley, Amos H. [19711(1981). Urban society. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hawley, Amos H. (1981). Human ecology: Persistence and change. In James F. Short (Ed.), The state of sociology: Problems and prospects (pp. 119–140 ). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Hawley, Amos H. (1984). Human ecological and Marxian theories. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 904–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hawley, Amos H. (1986). Human ecology: A theoretical essay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Irwin, Michael, and Kasarda, John D. (1991). Air passenger linkages and employment growth in U.S. metropolitan areas. American Sociological Review, 56, 524–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Karp, Herbert H., and Kelley, K. Dennis. (1971). Toward an ecological analysis of intermetropolitan migration. Chicago: Markham.Google Scholar
  35. Kasarda, John D. (1973). The ecological approach in sociology. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Southwestern Sociological Association, Dallas, Texas, March.Google Scholar
  36. Kasarda, John D. (1980). The implications of contemporary distribution trends for national urban policy. Social Science Quarterly, 61, 373–400.Google Scholar
  37. Kasarda, John D. (1981). To revitalize the cities. American Demographics, 3, 13–19.Google Scholar
  38. Krivo, Lauren, and Frisbie, W. Parker. (1982). Measuring change: The case of suburban status. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 17, 419–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lenski, G. E. (1970). Human societies. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  40. Lichter, Daniel T., and Fuguitt, Glenn V. (1980). Demographic response to transportation innovation: The case of the interstate highway. Social Forces, 59, 492–512.Google Scholar
  41. Liu, Ben-Chieh. (1976). Quality of life indicators in U.S. metropolitan areas: A statistical analysis. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  42. Logan, John R., and Molotch, Harvey L. (1987). Urban fortunes: The political economy of place. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  43. McCarthy, Kevin F., and Morrison, Peter A. (1979). The changing demographic and economic structure of non-metropolitan areas in the United States, Report No. R-2399-EDA. Santa Monica: Rand.Google Scholar
  44. McKenzie, R. D. (1924). The ecological approach to the study of the human community. American Journal of Sociology, 30, 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McKenzie, R. D. (1934). The field and problems of demography, human geography and human ecology. In L. L. Bernard (Ed.), The fields and methods of sociology (pp. 52–66 ). New York: R. Long and R. R. Smith.Google Scholar
  46. McKenzie, R. D. (1968). Roderick D. McKenzie on human ecology: Selected writings (Amos H. Hawley Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Marshall, Harvey. (1979). White movement to the suburbs: A comparison of explanations. American Sociological Review, 44, 975–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Michelson, William. (1970). Man and his environment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  49. Michelson, William. (1976). Man and his urban environment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  50. Namboodiri, Krishnan. (1988). Ecological demography: Its place in sociology. American Sociological Review, 53, 619–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Namboodiri, Krishnan. (1994). The human ecological approach to the study of population dynamics. Population Index, 60, 517–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ogburn, W. F. (1955). Technology and the standard of living in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 60, 380–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poston, Dudley L., Jr. (1980). An ecological analysis of migration in metropolitan America, 1970–75. Social Science Quarterly, 61, 418–433.Google Scholar
  54. Poston, Dudley L., Jr. (1981). An ecological examination of southern population redistribution, 1970–75. In D. L. Poston, Jr. and R. H. Weller (Eds.), The population of the South: structure and change in social demographic context (pp. 137–154 ). Austin TX: The University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  55. Poston, Dudley L., Jr. (1983). Demographic change in nonmetropolitan America in the 1960s and 1970s: Population change versus net migration change. The Rural Sociologist, 3, 28–33.Google Scholar
  56. Poston, Dudley L., Jr., and Frisbie, W. Parker. (1984). Ecological models of migration: A final report of research grant ROI HD 15337, submitted to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center.Google Scholar
  57. Poston, Dudley L., Jr., Serow, William J., and Weller, Robert H. (1981). Demographic change in the South. In D. L. Poston, Jr., and R. H. Weller (Eds.), The population of the South: structure and change in social demographic context (pp. 3–22 ), Austin, TX: The University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  58. Poston, Dudley L., Jr., and White, Ralph. (1978). Indigenous labor supply, sustenance organization, and population redistribution in nonmetropolitan America: An extension to the ecological theory of migration. Demography, 15, 637–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Price, Daniel, and Sikes, Melanie. (1975). Rural-urban migration research in the U.S. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  60. Richter, Kerry. (1985). Nonmetropolitan growth in the late 1970s: The end of the turnaround? Demography, 22, 245–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Robinson, W. S. (1950). Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. American Sociological Review, 15, 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schnore, Leo F. (1958). Social morphology and human ecology. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 620–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schnore, Leo F. (1965). The urban scene. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  64. Sjoberg, Gideon. (1965). Cities in developing and in industrial societies: A cross-cultural analysis. In P. M. Hauser and Leo F. Schnore (Eds.), The study of urbanization (pp. 213–63 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Sly, David F. (1972). Migration and the ecological complex. American Sociological Review, 37, 615–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sly, David F. (1975). Tourism’s role in migration to Florida Part Two. Governmental Research Bulletin, 12, 1–15.Google Scholar
  67. Suttles, G. (1972). The social construction of communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1978). County and city databook, 1977. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  69. Vance, R. B., and Sutker, S. S. (1954). Metropolitan dominance and integration. In R. B. Vance and N. J. Demerath (Eds.), The urban South (pp. 114–134 ). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  70. van den Berghe, Pierre L. (1990). Why most sociologists don’t (and won’t) think evolutionarily. Sociological Forum, 5, 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wardwell, John M. (1980). Toward a theory of urban/rural migration in the developed world. In David L. Brown and John M. Wardwell (Eds.), New directions in urban/rural migration (pp. 71–114 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Wardwell, John M., and Gilchrist, C. J. (1980). Employment deconcentration in the nonmetropolitan turnaround. Demography, 17, 145–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wheat, L. F. (1969). The effects of modern highways on urban manufacturing growth. Highway Research Record, 277, 9–24.Google Scholar
  74. Zorbaugh, Harvey. (1929). The gold coast and the slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dudley L. PostonJr.
    • 1
  • W. Parker Frisbie
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Population Research CenterThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations