Language Development and Language Disorders in Children and Adolescents

  • Sheldon M. Frank
  • R. W. Rieber

Abstract

The first part of this chapter will provide an overview of the authors’ orientation; this will be followed by a second part on normal language development and then by a third part on language disorders. Thus the discussion of language disorders is the ultimate goal of this chapter. “Language-affecting disorders” would be a better, though more cumbersome term—it connotes the disturbance of the language function while avoiding the issue of primacy of affected modality. The emphasis is meant to be on the factor “disorders,” as they appear to a professional involving the patients he or she sees. The disorders discussed will include “mental” and “physical” language disorders; the focus will be on the kind of background knowledge, information, and viewpoint that would benefit a clinician in trying to understand a patient’s language as a given part of behavior and as a clue to many aspects of functioning and of organization. Any clinician—speech pathologist, special educator, internist—must know of the many factors (biological, psychological, and social) that may combine to produce a symptom or syndrome. The language of the patient’s presentation may be a central focus or may be something on the periphery of the patient’s main problem, much as high blood pressure may be an idiopathic disease entity or a sign of nephritis, or learning disability may be a syndrome or one sign of schizophrenia.

Keywords

Language Development Autistic Child Language Acquisition Deaf Child Language Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, D. The development of predication in child language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teacher’s College, 1973.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. DSM–111, 1–15–78 Draft. Washington, D.C.: A.P.A., 1978.Google Scholar
  3. Andreasen, N. Linguistic analysis of speech in affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 1361–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, L., Cantwell, D., Rutter, M., Bartak, L. Language and Autism. In S. Ritvo (Ed.), Autism. New York: Spectrum, 1976, pp. 121–149.Google Scholar
  5. Baldwin, A., Baldwin, C. Study of mother-child interaction. American Scientist, 1973, 61, 714–721.Google Scholar
  6. Barry, H. The young aphasic child: Evaluation and training. Washington, D.C.: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 1961.Google Scholar
  7. Bateson, M. Mother-infant exchanges: The epigeneis of conversational interaction. In D. Aaronson R. Rieber (Eds.), Developmental psycholinguistics and communication disorders (Vol. 263). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. Benton, A. Cognitive functioning. In M. Wykie (Ed.), Developmental dysphasia. London: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, M. F., Eisensen, J. Speech disorders. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1956.Google Scholar
  10. Blank, M., Frank, S. Story recall in kindergarten children: Effect of presentation method. Child Development, 1971, 42, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bloom, L. Language development, form and function in emerging grammars. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. Bloom, L. One word at a time: The use of single word utterances before syntax. The Hague: Mouton, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Bloom, L., Lahey, M. Language development and language disorders. New York: John Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Brame, M. The ontogeny of English phrase structures: The first phase. Language, 1963, 39, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brazleton, T. et al. Early mother-infant reciprocity in parent-infant interaction. Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 3, 1975.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, R., Bellugi, U. Three processes in the child’s acquisition of syntax. Harvard Educational Review, 1964, 34, 133–151.Google Scholar
  17. Cantwell, D., Baker, K., Rutter, M. Families of autistic and dysphasic children. II. Mothers’ speech to the children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1977, 7, 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter, M. D. Sensitivity to syntactic structure: good vs. poor premorbid schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1976, 85, 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrow, M. A. The development of auditory comprehension of language structure in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1968, 33, 99–111.Google Scholar
  20. Chaika, E. A linguist looks at “schizophrenic” language. Brain and Language, 1974, 1, 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chomsky, C. The child’s acquisition of syntax between five and ten. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  22. Chomsky, N. Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton, 1957.Google Scholar
  23. Chomsky, N. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  24. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. Interactions between mothers and their young children: Characteristics and consequences. Society for Research in Child Development Monograph 153. Chicago: Society for Research in Child Development, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Condon, W., Sander, L. Synchrony demonstrated between movements of the neonate and adult speech. Child Development, 1974, 45, 456–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corwin, R. The basis of childhood dysphasia: A linguistic approach. In M. Wykiel (Ed.), Developmental Dysphasia. London: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  27. Corwin, M., Golub, H. Reported on in N.Y. Times, June 13, 1979, p. A21.Google Scholar
  28. Davis, H. Occam’s razor and congenital aphasia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1962, 24, 1.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, H., Goldstein, R. Special auditory tests. In H. Davis S. R. Silverman (Eds.), Hearing and deafness. New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1960.Google Scholar
  30. DeHirsch, K. Differential diagnosis between aphasic and schizophrenic language in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1967, 32, 3–10.Google Scholar
  31. DiCarlo, L. M. Differential diagnosis of congenital aphasia. Volta Review, 1960, 62, 361.Google Scholar
  32. Doehring, D. Visual spatial memory in aphasic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1960, 3, 138.Google Scholar
  33. Dulit, E. Adolescent Thinking à la Piaget: The Formal Stage. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,1972, 1.Google Scholar
  34. Efran, R. Temporal perception, aphasia and déjà-vu. Brain, 1963, 86, 403–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eimas, P. et al. Speech perception in infants. Science, 1971, 171, 303–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Erikson, E. C. Childhood and society. New York: Norton, 1950.Google Scholar
  37. Flavell, J. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foster, C., Giddan, J. J., Stark, J. Assessment of children’s language comprehension. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  39. Frank, S. Language acquisition. Paper presented to staff conference, New York University Medical Center, March 7, 1973.Google Scholar
  40. Frank, S. Review of language effects of maternal deprivation. Unpublished manuscript, 1980.Google Scholar
  41. Frank, S., Osser, H. A psycholinguistic model of syntactic complexity. Language and Speech, 1970, 13, 38–53.Google Scholar
  42. Frank, S., Seegmiller, M. Children’s language environment in free play situation. Paper presented to Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, 1973.Google Scholar
  43. Frank, S., Allen, D., Stein, L., Myers, B. Linguistic performance in vulnerable and autistic children and their mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 909–915.Google Scholar
  44. Frank, S., Kraus, M., Oberfield, R. Family communication patterns in autism. In M. Simpson (Ed.), Clinical psycholinguistics, New York: Elsevier-North Holland, 1979.Google Scholar
  45. Frank, S., Rendon, M., Siamopoulous, G. Language in hallucinations of adolescent schizophrenics. In R. Rieber (Ed.), Childhood language disorders and mental health. New York: Plenum, 1979.Google Scholar
  46. Freud, S. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In J. Strachey (Ed.), Standard Edition, Complete psychological works. London: Hogarth, 1953. (Originally published, 1905.)Google Scholar
  47. Freud, S. Outline of psychoanalysis, In J. Strachey (Ed.), Standard Edition, Complete psychological works. London: Hogarth, 1953. (Originally published, 1939.)Google Scholar
  48. Furth, H. Sequence learning in aphasic and deaf children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1964, 9, 441–449.Google Scholar
  49. Gardner, R., Gardner, B. Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee, Science, 1969, 165, 664–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gazzaniga, M. The bisected brain. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.Google Scholar
  51. Goldfarb, W. Childhood schizophrenia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  52. Goldstein, R., Landau, W., Kleffner, F. Neurologic observations in populations of deaf and aphasic children. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, Laryngology, 1960, 67, 468.Google Scholar
  53. Ingram, D. If and when transformations are acquired by children. Paper presented to Georgetown (Linguistics) Round Table, 1975.Google Scholar
  54. Inhelder, B., Piaget, J. The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence. New York: Basic Books, 1958.Google Scholar
  55. Irwin, O. Infant speech: Consonantal sounds according to place of articulation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1947, 12, 397–401.Google Scholar
  56. Irwin, O. Infant speech: Development of vowel sounds. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1948, 13, 31–34.Google Scholar
  57. Jakobson, R., Halle, M. Fundamentals of language. The Hague: Mouton, 1956. Kanner, L. Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child, 1943, 2, 242–250.Google Scholar
  58. Karlin, I. Aphasias in children. American Journal of Dis. Child., 1954, 87, 752.Google Scholar
  59. Kendall, D. C. Language and communication problems in children. In R. Rieber R. Brabaker (Eds.), Speech pathology, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1966.Google Scholar
  60. Kimura, D. The neural basis of language qua gesture. In H. Whitaker H. Whitaker (eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics (Vol. 2 ). New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 145–156.Google Scholar
  61. Kleffner, R. Aphasic and other language deficiencies in children. In W. Daley (Ed.), Speech and language therapy with the brain-damaged child. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1962.Google Scholar
  62. Krashen, S. The critical period of language acquisition and its possible bases. In D. Aaronson R. Rieber, Developmental psycholinguistics and communication disorders (Vol. 263 ). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1975.Google Scholar
  63. Lashley, K. The problem of serial order in behavior. In L. Jeffress (Ed.), Cerebral mechanisms in behavior. New York: Wiley, 1951.Google Scholar
  64. Lee, L. Developmental sentence types: A method for comparing normal and deviant syntactic development. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1966, 3, 311–320.Google Scholar
  65. Lee, L. Northwestern Syntax Screening Test. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University, 1969.Google Scholar
  66. Lenneberg, E. Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley, 1967.Google Scholar
  67. Lowe, A., Campbell, R. Temporal discrimination in aphasoid and normal children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1965, 8, 313–315.Google Scholar
  68. Maher, B. The language of schizophrenia: A review and interpretation. British Journal of Psychology, 1972, 120, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mahler, M. The psychological birth of the human infant. New York: Basic Books, 1975.Google Scholar
  70. Manschreck, T., Maher, B., Rucklos, M., White, M. The predictability of thought disordered speech in schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychology, 1979, 134, 595–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marcos, L., Alpert, M. Bilingualism. In R. Rieber (Ed.), Childhood language disorders and mental health. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  72. McCarthy, D. Language development in children. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology. New York: Wiley, 1954.Google Scholar
  73. McCarthy, J., Kirk, S. The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1961.Google Scholar
  74. McGinnis, M. Aphasic children: Identification and education by the association method. Washington, D.C.: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 1963.Google Scholar
  75. McReynolds, L. Operant conditioning for investigation speech sound discrimination in aphasic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1966, 9, 519–528.Google Scholar
  76. Menyuk, P. Syntactic structures in the language of children. Child Development, 1963, 34, 407–422.Google Scholar
  77. Menyuk, P. Linguistic problems in children with developmental dysphasia. In M. Wykie (Ed.), Developmental Dysphasia. London: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  78. Miller, G. Language and communication. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Miller, R. Development from 1 to 2 years: Language acquisition. In I. Noshpitz (Ed.), Basic handbook of child psychiatry (Vol. 1 ). New York: Basic Books, 1979, pp. 127–144.Google Scholar
  80. Moerk, E. L. Verbal interactions between children and their mothers during the preschool years. Developmental Psychology, 1975, 11, 788–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Monsee, E. Aphasia in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1961, 26, 83.Google Scholar
  82. Morehead, D., Ingram, D. The development of base syntax in normal and linguistically deviant children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1973, 16, 330–352.Google Scholar
  83. Myklebust, H. Auditory disorders in children. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1954.Google Scholar
  84. Myklebust, H. Aphasia in children—Language development and language pathology. In L. Travis (Ed.), Handbook of speech pathology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.Google Scholar
  85. Myklebust, H. Aphasia in children-diagnosis and training. In L. Travis (Ed.), Handbook of speech pathology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.Google Scholar
  86. Nelson, K. Structure and strategy in learning to talk. Society for Research in Child Development, Monograph 161, 1973, 38, 1–2.Google Scholar
  87. Neuhaus, E. Psychological aspects. In The concept of congenital aphasia from the standpoint of dynamic differential diagnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Speech and Hearing Association, 1959.Google Scholar
  88. O’Connor, N., Hermelin, B. Speech and thought in severe subnormality. New York: Macmillan, 1963.Google Scholar
  89. Rapin, I., Wilson, B. Children with developmental language disability: Neurological aspects and assessments. In M. Wykie (Ed.), Developmental dysphasia. London: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  90. Rees, N. Auditory processing factors in language disorders: The view from Procrustes’ Bed, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1973, 38, 304–315.Google Scholar
  91. Rees, N., Shulman, M. I don ‘t understand what you mean by comprehension. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1978, 43, 208–219.Google Scholar
  92. Rochester, S. R., et al. Sentence processing in schizophrenic listeners. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 3, 350–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rosenthal, W. Auditory and linguistic interactions in developmental aphasia: Evidence from two studies of auditory processing. Stanford University Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 1972, 4, 19–35.Google Scholar
  94. Shapiro, T. Language in adolescence. In R. Rieber (Ed.), Childhood language disorders and mental health. New York: Plenum, 1979.Google Scholar
  95. Shapiro, T., Fish, B. A method to study language deviations as an aspect of ego organization in young schizophrenic children. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 1969, 8, 36–56.Google Scholar
  96. Shapiro, T., Huebner, H. Speech patterns of five psychotic children now in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 1976, 15, 278–293.Google Scholar
  97. Shapiro, T., Lucy, P. Echoing in autistic children: A chronometric study of semantic processing. Journal of Child Psychology Child Psychiatry, 1977, 19, 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shipley, E., Smith, C., Gleitman, L. A study in the acquisition of language: Free responses to commands. Language, 1969, 45, 322–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, F., Miller, G. (Eds.). The genesis of language. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  100. Snow, C. Mothers’ speech to children learning language. Child Development, 1972, 43, 549–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Spitz, R. A. The smiling response: A contribution to the ontogenesis of social relations (with assistance of K. M. Wolf, Ph.D.). Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1946, pp. 57–125.Google Scholar
  102. Stark, J. Performance of aphasic children on the ITPA. Exceptional Child, 1966, 33, 153–161.Google Scholar
  103. Stark, J. A comparison of the performance of aphasic children on three sequencing tests. Journal of Communication Disorders, 1967, 1, 31–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stark, J., Poppen, R., May, M. Effects of alterations of prosodic features on the sequencing performance of aphasic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1967, 10, 849–855.Google Scholar
  105. Stark, J., Foster, C., Giddan, J., Gottsleben, R., Wright, T. Teaching the aphasic child. Exceptional Child, 1968, 35, 149–154.Google Scholar
  106. Stem, D. A microanalysis of mother-infant interaction: Behavior regulating social contact between a mother and her 31/2 month old twins. In E. Rexford, L. Sanders, T. Shapiro (Eds.), Infant psychiatry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  107. Strauss, A. A., Kephart, N. C. Psychopathology and education of the brain injured child (Vol. 2). New York: Grune and Stratton, 1955.Google Scholar
  108. Strauss, A. A., Lentinen, L. E. Psychopathology and education of the brain injured child (Vol. 1). New York: Grune and Stratton, 1947.Google Scholar
  109. Tallai, P. Rapid auditory processing in normal and disordered language development. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1976, 19, 561–571.Google Scholar
  110. Tallai, P., Piercy, M. Developmental aphasia: Impaired rate of nonverbal processing as a function of sensory modality. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tallai, P., Piercy, M. Developmental aphasia: Rate of auditory processing and selective impairment of consonant perception. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tallai, P., Piercy, M. Developmental aphasia: The perception of brief vowels and extended stop consonants. Neuropsychologia, 1975, 3, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tucker, G. Senorimotor functions and cognitive disturbance in psychiatric patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 132, 17–21.Google Scholar
  114. Tyack, D., Gottsleben, R. Language sampling, analysis and training: A handbook for teachers and clinicians. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  115. Weir, R. Language in the Crib, The Hague: Mouton, 1962.Google Scholar
  116. Wepman, J. M., Jones, L. V., Bock, R. D., VanPelt, D. Studies in aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1960, 25, 323.Google Scholar
  117. Werner, H., Kaplan, B. Symbol formation. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  118. Whitaker, H., Whitaker, H. Studies in neurolinguistics ( 2 Vols.). New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  119. Wolff, P. H. The natural history of crying and other vocalizations in early infancy. In B. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. 4 ). London: Methuen, 1969, pp. 81–109.Google Scholar
  120. Wood, N. E. Language development and language disorders. Society for Research in Child Development, Monograph, 1960, 77, 25, 3.Google Scholar
  121. Wood, N. E. Delayed speech and language development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964.Google Scholar
  122. Zangwill, O. The concept of developmental dysphasia. In M. Wykie (Ed.), Developmental dysphasia. London: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheldon M. Frank
    • 1
  • R. W. Rieber
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and PediatricsUniversity of Miami, School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyJohn Jay College, CUNYNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations