Neurobiology of the Reptile—Bird Transition

  • Philip S. Ulinski
  • Daniel Margoliash
Part of the Cerebral Cortex book series (CECO, volume 8A)

Abstract

Birds evolved from archosaurian reptiles during the Mesozoic era, between 230 and 65 million years ago. The archosaurs, or “ruling” reptiles, dominated the terrestrial fauna throughout the Mesozoic. They include several evolutionary lineages of which the dinosaurs, the pterosaurs or flying reptiles, and the various lineages of crocodilians are the most important. Which particular group of archosaurs gave rise to birds has been a matter of controversy. Heilmann (1926) suggested that birds evolved from the protosuchians, a group of archosaurs related to crocodilians. Ostrom (1976) reexamined the evidence related to the origin of birds and suggested they evolved from small, bipedal dinosaurs. This view now is widely accepted by paleontologists (see Feduccia, 1980; Hecht et al., 1985). The conclusion that birds are derived from some group of archosaurian reptiles comes from detailed comparisons of the skeletal anatomy of the earliest fossil bird, Archaeopteryx lithographica, with members of the various groups of archosaurs. Archaeopteryx was a pigeon-sized bird that lived in a barren or desert environment, as judged by the presence of cacti in the sediments near which some Archaeopteryx specimens were found (Viohl, 1985, 1990). Archaeopteryx is found in the upper Jurassic (the second of the three periods in the Mesozoic era), in sediments about 130 million years old.

Keywords

Zebra Finch Interaural Time Difference Optic Tectum Guinea Fowl Dorsal Thalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip S. Ulinski
    • 1
  • Daniel Margoliash
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, and Committee on NeurobiologyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, and Committees on Neurobiology and BiopsychologyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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