The Effects of Legal Restraint on Drinking

  • Robert E. Popham
  • Wolfgang Schmidt
  • Jan de Lint

Abstract

The purpose of this review is to assess the evidence bearing on the effects of legal measures believed to have some primary preventive value with respect to the incidence of alcohol problems. Excluded from consideration are laws concerned solely with such special segments of the drinking population as incorrigible alcoholics, public inebriates, and impaired drivers. It is true that these laws are sometimes seen to have a possible deterrent effect on the appearance of new cases (Bruun, 1970). However, with the exception of certain legislation directed against impaired driving, the primary effect if any is more likely to be on recidivism rates. In contrast, our focus is on legislation and derivative measures aimed at the whole population of consumers (or potential consumers) of alcohol, and intended to prevent the occurrence of alcohol problems through regulation of the amount or character of alcohol consumption.

Keywords

Alcohol Consumption Alcoholic Beverage Alcohol Problem Blood Alcohol Level Drinking Occasion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlstriim-Laakso, S., 1971, Arrests for drunkenness—two capital cities compared, Scandinavian Studies in Criminology 3: 89–105.Google Scholar
  2. Alcoholic Beverage Study Committee, 1973, “Beer, Wine and Spirits: Beverage Differences and Public Policy in Canada,” Brewers Association of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, C. S., 1966, Idiopathic heart disease. I. Analysis of 100 cases with special reference to chronic alcoholism, Amer. J. Med. 41: 213–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amundsen, A., 1965, Hva skjer när et nytt vinutsalg âpnes? Statens Institutt for Alkoholforskning, Oslo [Ms. on file].Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous, 1968, Heart disease and beer drinking, Pub. Hlth. Reports 83: 998.Google Scholar
  6. Archibald, H. D., 1971, Alcohol and drugs: Government responsibility, in 29th International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (L. Kiloh and D. S. Bell, eds.), pp. 238–256, Butterworths, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  7. Armstrong, J. D., 1958, The search for the alcoholic personality, in “Understanding Alcoholism” (S. D. Bacon, ed.), Vol. 315, pp. 40–47, Annals ofthe American Academy of Political and Social Science, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  8. Asbury, H., 1950, “The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition,” Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Askwith, G. R., 1928, “British Taverns: Their History and Laws,” Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  10. Bacon, S. D., 1973, The process of addiction to alcohol, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 34: 1–27.Google Scholar
  11. Bales, R. F., 1946, Cultural differences in rates of alcoholism, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 6:480–499. Bättig, K., 1967, Alkoholismus: Epidemiologische Zusammenhänge und Folgen, Natur. W. Rdsch. 20: 200–204.Google Scholar
  12. Barker, T. W., 1957, The States in the liquor business, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 18: 492–502.Google Scholar
  13. Bigelow, G., and Liebson, I., 1972, Cost factors controlling alcoholic drinking, The Psychological Record 22: 305–314.Google Scholar
  14. Blaney, R., 1967, The prevalence of alcoholism in Northern Ireland, Ulster Med. J. 36: 33–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boalt, G., and von Euler, R., 1959, “Alkoholproblem,” Bohusläns Grafiska, Uddevalla.Google Scholar
  16. Bonfiglio, G., 1963, Alcoholism in Italy, Brit. J. Addictions 59: 3–10.Google Scholar
  17. Borkenstein, R. F., Crowther, R. F., Shumate, R. P., Ziel, W. B., and Zylman, R., 1964, The role of the drinking driver in traffic accidents, report of the Department of Police Administration, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.Google Scholar
  18. Brésard, M., 1969, Alcoolisme et conscience collective, Revue d’Alcoolisme 15 (2): 81–96.Google Scholar
  19. Bronetto, J., 1960–63, Alcohol Price, Alcohol Consumption and Death by Liver Cirrhosis, Sub–studies 1–8–60 to 1.7–8–63, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto.Google Scholar
  20. Bruun, K., 1959, Drinking Behaviour in Small Groups, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 9, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  21. Bruun, K., 1970, Legislation and alcoholism, in “Alcohol and Alcoholism” (R. E. Popham, ed.), pp. 356–359, U. of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  22. Bruun, K., and Hauge, R., 1963, Drinking Habits among Northern Youth: A Cross-National Study of Male Teenage Drinking in the Northern Capitals, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 12, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  23. Bruun, K., Koura, E., Popham, R. E., and Seeley, J. R., 1960, Liver Cirrhosis Mortality as a Means to Measure the Prevalence of Alcoholism, The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 8, Part 2, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  24. Bryant, C. W., 1954, Effects of sale of liquor by the drink in the State of Washington, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 15: 320–324.Google Scholar
  25. Calkins, R., 1901, “Substitutes for the Saloon,” Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  26. Canada Facts, 1946, Report of Results of a Study of Attitudes of the Ontario Public Towards the Distribution of Alcoholic Beverages, Canada Facts Ltd., Toronto.Google Scholar
  27. Catlin, G., 1931, “Liquor Control,” Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Cavan, S., 1966, “Liquor License: An Ethnography of Bar Behavior,” Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  29. Christie, N., 1965, Scandinavian experience in legislation and control, in National Conference on Legal Issues in Alcoholism and Alcohol Usage, pp. 101–122, Boston U. Law-Medicine Institute, Boston.Google Scholar
  30. Davies, D. L., 1962, Normal drinking in recovered alcohol addicts. Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 23: 94–104.Google Scholar
  31. de Lint, J., 1962, Pathological Wine Consumption in Toronto: A Study of Its Definition for Sociological Analysis, M. A. thesis, U. of Toronto ( Sociology ), Toronto.Google Scholar
  32. de Lint, J., 1964, The Distribution of Alcohol Consumption in Male and Female Alcoholic Samples, Addiction Research Foundation, Substudy 16–10–64, Toronto.Google Scholar
  33. de Lint, J., and Bronetto, J., 1966, Konsumtion av destillerade alkoholdrycker och Dödligheten i levercirrhos, Alkoholpolitik 29: 62–64.Google Scholar
  34. de Lint, J., and Schmidt, W., 1966, Unpublished Data from a Study of Alcohol Buying in Ontario, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto.Google Scholar
  35. de Lint, J., and Schmidt, W., 1968, The distribution of alcohol consumption in Ontario, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 29: 968–973.Google Scholar
  36. de Lint, J., and Schmidt, W., 1971, The epidemiology of alcoholism, in “Biological Basis of Alcoholism” (Y. Israel and J. Mardones, eds.), pp. 423–442, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  37. de Lint, J., Schmidt, W., and Jorge, F., 1967, Statistics of Alcohol Buying in Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto (Ms. on file).Google Scholar
  38. Devrient, P., and Lolli, G., 1962, Choice of alcoholic beverage among 240 alcoholics in Switzerland, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 23: 459–467.Google Scholar
  39. Dewar, R., and Sommer, R., 1962, The Consumption of Alcohol in a Saskatchewan Community Before and After the Opening of a New Liquor Outlet, Bureau on Alcoholism, Regina [Mimeographed].Google Scholar
  40. Edwards, G., 1971, Public health implications of liquor control, The Lancet (August 21, 1971 ) pp. 424–425.Google Scholar
  41. Ekholm, A., 1972, The lognormal distribution of blood alcohol concentrations in drivers, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 33: 508–512.Google Scholar
  42. Elmer, A., 1957, The change of temperance policy in Sweden, Brit. J. Addictions 54: 55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Entine, A. D., 1963, The Relationship between the Number of Sales Outlets and the Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages in New York and Other States, New York State Moreland Commission of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Law, Study Paper No. 2, Albany.Google Scholar
  44. Expert Committee on Mental Health, 1951, Report on the First Session of the Alcoholism Subcommittee, World Health Organization Technical Report, Series, No. 42, Geneva.Google Scholar
  45. Feldman, H., 1930, “Prohibition: Its Economic and Industrial Aspects,” Appleton, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Frank, H., Heil, W., and Leodolter, I., 1967, Leber and Bierkonsum; Vergleichende Untersuchungen an 450 Arbeitern, Munch. med. Wschr. 109: 892–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gadourek, I., 1963, “Riskante gewoonten en zorg voor eigen welzijn,” Wolters, Groningen.Google Scholar
  48. Gibbins, R. J., Kalant, H., LeBlanc, A. E., and Clark, J. W., 1971, The effects of chronic administration of ethanol on startle thresholds in rats, Psychopharmacologia 19: 95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harper, R. F., 1904, “The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon,” U. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  50. Harvola, V., 1956, [English summary of lead article], Alkoholpolitik 19: 26.Google Scholar
  51. Hunt, G. M., and Azrin, N. H., 1973, A community-reinforcement approach to alcoholism, Behan. Res. and Therapy 11: 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Isaksson, D., 1957, Fdrslag till progressivt Beskattningssystem för alkohol-haltiga Drycker, baserat pa Dryckernas relativa Intoxikationseffekt, Alkoholfriigan 51: 72–80.Google Scholar
  53. Jellinek, E. M., 1947, Recent trends in alcoholism and in alcohol consumption, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 8: 1–42.Google Scholar
  54. Jellinek, E. M., 1960a “The Disease Concept of Alcoholism,” Hillhouse, New Haven.Google Scholar
  55. Jellinek, E. M., 1960b, Alcoholism, a genus and some of its species, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 83: 1341–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jellinek, E. M., 1963, Government Programs on Alcoholism; A Review of the Activities in Some Foreign Countries, Dept. National Health and Welfare, Mental Health Division Report Series Memo No. 6, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  57. Jolliffe, N., and Jellinek, E. M., 1941, Vitamin deficiencies in alcoholism. Part VII. Cirrhosis of the liver Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 2: 544–583.Google Scholar
  58. Kalant, H., and Kalant, O. J., 1971, “Drugs, Society and Personal Choice,” General Publishing, Toronto.Google Scholar
  59. Kalant, H., LeBlanc, A. E., Wilson, A., and Homalis, S., 1975, Sensorymotor and physiological effects of various alcoholic beverages, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 112: 953–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kalant, H., LeBlanc, A. E., and Gibbins, R. J., 1971, Tolerance to, and dependence on, some non-opiate psychotropic drugs, Pharmacol. Reviews 23: 135–191.Google Scholar
  61. Keehn, J. D., 1969a, Psychological paradigms of dependence, Internat. J. Addictions 4:499–506. Keehn, J. D., 1969b, Translating behavioral research into practical terms for alcoholism, The Canadian Psychologist 10: 438–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keller, M., 1972, The oddities of alcoholics, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 33: 1147–1148.Google Scholar
  63. King, F. A., 1947, “Beer Has a History,” Hutchinson’s London.Google Scholar
  64. Krout, J. A., 1925, “The Origins of Prohibition,” Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Kuusi, P., 1948, “Suomen Viinapulma: Gallup-Tutkimuksen Valossa,” Otava, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  66. Kuusi, P., 1957, Alcohol Sales Experiment in Rural Finland, The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 3, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  67. Landis, B. Y., 1948, Economic aspects of state alcoholic beverage monopoly enterprises, 19371946, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 9: 259–269.Google Scholar
  68. Lanu, K. E., 1956, Control of Deviating Drinking Behavior: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Formal Control over Drinking Behavior, The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 2, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  69. Lau, H-H., 1973a, Time Series Regression Analysis of Per Adult Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages I. Canada 1949–1969, Addiction Research Foundation, Substudy No. 542, Toronto.Google Scholar
  70. Lau, H-H., 1973b, Time Series Regression Analysis of Per Adult Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages II. Eight Canadian Provinces 1933–1969, Addiction Research Foundation, Sub-study No. 543, Toronto.Google Scholar
  71. Lau, H-H., 1975, Cost of alcoholic beverages as a determinant of alcohol consumption, in “Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems” (R. J. Gibbins, Y. Israel, H. Kalant, R. E. Popham, W. Schmidt, and R. G. Smart, eds.), Vol. 2, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  72. LeBlanc, A. E., Kalant, H., Gibbins, R. J., and Berman, N. D., 1969, Acquisition and loss of tolerance to ethanol in the rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 168: 244–250.Google Scholar
  73. LeBlanc, A. E., Gibbins, R. J., and Kalant, H., 1973, Behavioral augmentation of tolerance to ethanol in the rat, Psychopharmacologia 30: 117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ledermann, S. C., 1956, Alcool, Alcoolisme, Alcoolisation; Données Scientifiques de Caractère Physiologique, Économique et Social, Inst. Nat. Études Démog., Tray. et Doc., Cah. No. 29, Paris.Google Scholar
  75. Ledermann, S., 1964, Alcool, Alcoolisme, Alcoolisation; Mortalité, Morbidité, Accidents du Travail, Inst. Nat. Études Démog., Tray. et Doc., Cah. No. 41, Paris.Google Scholar
  76. Lee, A. M., 1944, Techniques of social reform: An analysis of the new prohibition drive, Amer. Soc. Rev. 9: 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lelbach, W. K., 1966, Leberschäden bei chronischen Alkoholismus, Acta Hep.-Splenol. 13: 321–349.Google Scholar
  78. Lelbach, W. K., 1967, Zur leberschädigenden Wirkung verschiedener Alkoholika, Dtsch. med. Wschr. 92: 233–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lelbach, W. K., 1974, Organic pathology related to volume and pattern of alcohol use, in “Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems” (R. J. Gibbins, Y. Israel, H. Kalant, R. E. Popham, W. Schmidt, and R. G. Smart, eds.), Vol. 1, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Lemert, E. M., 1962, Alcohol, values, and social control, in “Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns” (D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder, eds.), pp. 553–571, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Lester, D., 1966, Self-selection of alcohol by animals, human variation and the etiology of alcoholism: A critical review, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 27: 395–438.Google Scholar
  82. Levy, H., 1951, “Drink: An Economic and Social Study,” Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Lisansky, E., 1960, The etiology of alcoholism: The role of psychological predisposition, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 21: 314–343.Google Scholar
  83. Lolli, G., Golder, G. M., Serianni, E., Bonfiglio, G., and Balboni, C., 1958, Choice of alcoholic beverage among 178 alcoholics in Italy, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 19: 303–308.Google Scholar
  84. Lolli, G., Schesler, E., and Golder, G. M., 1960, Choice of alcoholic beverage among 105 alcoholics in New York, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 21: 475–482.Google Scholar
  85. Lynn, R., and Hampson, S., 1970, Alcoholism and alcohol consumption in Ireland, J. Irish Med. Assoc. 63: 39–42.Google Scholar
  86. Mäkelä, K., 1971, Concentration of alcohol consumption, Scandinavian Studies in Criminology 3: 77–88.Google Scholar
  87. Mäkelä, K., 1972, Consumption Level and Cultural Drinking Patterns as Determinants of Alcohol Problems: Paper presented at the Thirtieth International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  88. Marcus, M., 1946, “The Liquor Control System in Sweden,” Norstedt and Söner, Stockholm. Maskell, H. P., 1927, “The Taverns of Old England,” Allan, London.Google Scholar
  89. Mass Observation, 1943, “The Pub and the People,” Gollancz, London.Google Scholar
  90. McCarthy, R. G., and Douglass, E. M., 1959, Systems of legal control, in “Drinking and Intoxication” (R. G. McCarthy, ed.), pp. 429–435, Free Press, Glencoe.Google Scholar
  91. McDermott, P. H., Delaney, R. L., Egan, J. D., and Sullivan, J. F., 1966, Myocardosis and cardiac failure in men, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 198: 253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nielsen, J., and Strömgren, E., 1969, Über die Abhängigkeit des Alkoholkonsums und der Alkoholkrankheiten vom Preis alkoholischer Getränke, Akt. Fragen Psychiat. Neurol. 9: 165–170.Google Scholar
  93. Nyberg, A., 1967, Alkoholijuomien Kulutus ja Hinnat, The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 15, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  94. Odegard, P. H., 1928, “Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League,” Columbia U. Press, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Oliver, B., 1947, “The Renaissance of the English Public House,” Faber, London.Google Scholar
  96. O’Neill, B., and Wells, W. T., 1971, Blood alcohol levels in drivers not involved in accidents and the lognormal distribution, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 32: 798–803.Google Scholar
  97. Parreiras, D., Lolli, G., and Golder, G. M., 1956, Choice of alcoholic beverage among 500 alcoholics in Brazil, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 17: 629–632.Google Scholar
  98. Pattison, E. M., Headley, E. B., Gleser, G. C., and Gottschalk, L. A., 1968, Abstinence and normal drinking: An assessment of changes in drinking patterns in alcoholics after treatment, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 29: 610–633.Google Scholar
  99. Péquignot, G., 1958, Enquête par interrogatoire sur les circonstances diététiques de la cirrhose alcoolique en France, Bull. Inst. Nat. Hyg. 13: 719–739.Google Scholar
  100. Pernanen, K., 1974, Validity of survey data on alcohol use, in “Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems” (R. J. Gibbins, Y. Israel, H. Kalant, R. E. Popham, W. Schmidt, and R. G. Smart, eds.), Vol. 1, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Popham, R. E., 1956, The Jellinek alcoholism estimation formula and its application to Canadian data, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 17: 559–593.Google Scholar
  102. Popham, R. E., 1959, Some social and cultural aspects of alcoholism, Can. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 4: 222–229.Google Scholar
  103. Popham, R. E., 1962, The urban tavern: Some preliminary remarks, Addictions 9 (2): 16–28.Google Scholar
  104. Popham, R. E., 1970, Indirect methods of alcoholism prevalence estimation: a critical evaluation, in “Alcohol and Alcoholism” (R. E. Popham, ed.), pp. 294–306, U. of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  105. Popham, R. E., and Schmidt, W., 1958, “Statistics of Alcohol Use and Alcoholism in Canada 1871–1956,” U. of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  106. Popham, R. E., Schmidt, W., and de Lint, J. E. E., 1976, The prevention of hazardous drinking: implications for research on the effects of government control measures, in “Drinking” (J. A. Ewing and B. A. Rouse, eds.), Nelson-Hall, Chicago.Google Scholar
  107. Raymond, A., 1969, Ten o’clock closing-the effect of the change in hotel bar closing time on road accidents in the metropolitan area of Victoria, Australian Road Research 3 (10): 3–17.Google Scholar
  108. Reuss, C., 1959, History of Beer Consumption in Belgium 1900–1957, Inst. Rech. Econ. Soc. Univ. Louvain, Louvain [Ms. on file].Google Scholar
  109. Room, R., 1971, The Effects of Drinking Laws on Drinking Behavior, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  110. Royal Commission on Licensing (England and Wales), 1932, Report, H. M. Stationary Office, London.Google Scholar
  111. Sadoun, R., and Lolli, G., 1962, Choice and alcoholic beverage among 120 alcoholics in France, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 23: 449–458.Google Scholar
  112. Sariola, S., 1956, Drinking Patterns in Finnish Lapland, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 1, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  113. Schmidt, W., 1972, A Note on the Effect of Lowering the Legal Drinking Age on the Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages, Addiction Research Foundation, Substudy No. 525, Toronto.Google Scholar
  114. Schmidt, W., and Bronetto, J., 1962, Death from liver cirrhosis and specific alcoholic beverage consumption: An ecological study, Amer. J. Pub. Hlth. 52: 1473–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schmidt, W., and de Lint, J., 1969, Mortality experience of male and female alcoholic patients, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 30: 112–118.Google Scholar
  116. Schmidt, W., and de Lint, J., 1970, Estimating the prevalence of alcoholism from alcohol consumption and mortality data, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 31: 957–964.Google Scholar
  117. Schmidt, W., and de Lint, J., 1972, Causes of death of alcoholics, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 33: 171–185.Google Scholar
  118. Schmidt, W., and Kornaczewski, A., 1973a, A Note on the Effect of Lowering the Legal Drinking Age on Alcohol Related Motor Vehicle Accidents, Addiction Research Foundation, Substudy No. 552, Toronto.Google Scholar
  119. Schmidt, W., and Kornaczewski, A., 1973b, A Further Note on the Effect of Lowering the Legal Drinking Age on Alcohol Related Motor Vehicle Accidents, Addiction Research Foundation, Substudy No. 558, Toronto.Google Scholar
  120. Schmidt, W., and Popham, R. E., 1965, Unpublished Data on an Out-Patient Clinical Population in Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto.Google Scholar
  121. Schmidt, W., Smart, R. G., and Popham, R. E., 1962, The role of alcoholism in motor vehicle accidents, Traffic Safety Research Review 6 (4): 21–27.Google Scholar
  122. Seeley, J. R., 1960, Death by liver cirrhosis and the price of beverage alcohol, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 83: 1361–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Seeley, J. R., 1962, The ecology of alcoholism: A beginning, in “Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns” (D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder, eds.), pp. 330–344, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Select Committee Appointed to Inquire into the Extent, Causes and Consequences of the Prevailing Vice of Intoxication among the Labouring Classes, 1834, Report, Home Office Library, London.Google Scholar
  125. Shadwell, A., 1915, “Drink, Temperance and Legislation,” Longmans Green, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Shadwell, A., 1923, “Drink in 1914–1922: A Lesson in Control,” Longmans Green, London.Google Scholar
  127. Simon, J. L., 1966a, The price elasticity of liquor in the U.S. and a simple method of determination, Econometrics 34: 193–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Simon, J. L., 1966b, The economic effects of state monopoly of packaged-liquor retailing, J. Political Economy 74: 188–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sjöberg, C., 1969, Olutalkoholismi lisääntyy ruotsissa, Alkoholikysymys 3: 81–84.Google Scholar
  130. Skala, J., 1967, Some Characteristic Signs of Alcoholism in Czechoslovakia, Selected Papers Presented at the 12th International Institute on the Prevention and Treatment of Alcoholism, International Council on Alcohol and Alcoholism, Vol. 1, pp. 21–34, Lausanne.Google Scholar
  131. Skog, O.-J., 1971, Alkoholkonsumets Fordeling i Befolkningen, Statens Institutt for Alkoholforskning, Oslo [Ms. on file].Google Scholar
  132. Smart, R. G., and Schmidt, W., 1970, Blood alcohol levels in drivers not involved in accidents, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 31: 968–971.Google Scholar
  133. Takala, M., Pihkanen, T. A., and Markkanen, T., 1957, The Effects of Distilled and Brewed Beverages, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Publication No. 4, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  134. Terris, M., 1967, Epidemiology of cirrhosis of the liver: National mortality data, Amer. J. Pub. Hlth. 57: 2076–2088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Terry, J., Lolli, G., and Golder, G. M., 1957, Choice of alcoholic beverage among 531 alcoholics in California, Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 18: 417–428.Google Scholar
  136. Tolkan, M., 1969, Polityka cen a wzrost spozycia alkoholu, Problemy Alkoholizmu 4 (1): 7–10.Google Scholar
  137. Ullman, A. D., 1958, Sociocultural backgrounds of alcoholism, in “Understanding Alcoholism” (S. D. Bacon, ed.), Vol. 315, pp. 48–54, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  138. Wallgren, H., 1960, Alkoholism och alkoholförbrukning, Alkoholpolitik 23: 146–149.Google Scholar
  139. Wallgren, H., 1970, On the Relationship of the Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages to the Genesis of Alcoholic Disorders, Alkon Keskuslaboratorio, Report 7378, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  140. Walsh, B. M., and Walsh, D., 1970, Economic aspects of alcohol consumption in the Republic of Ireland, Econ. Soc. Review (Ireland) 2: 115–138.Google Scholar
  141. Walsh, B. M., and Walsh, D., 1973, Validity of indices of alcoholism, Brit. J. Prey. Soc. Med. 27: 18–26.Google Scholar
  142. Warburton, C., 1932, The Economic Results of Prohibition, Studies in History, Economics and Public Law No. 379, Columbia U. Press, New York.Google Scholar
  143. Whitehead, P. C., 1972, The Prevention of Alcoholism: An Analysis of Two Approaches, Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, Montreal, Quebec.Google Scholar
  144. Wilkinson, P., Santamaria, J. N., Rankin, J. G., and Martin, D., 1969, Epidemiology of alcoholism: Social data and drinking patterns of a sample of Australian alcoholics, Med. J. Australia 1: 1020–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Wilkinson, R., 1970, “The Prevention of Drinking Problems,” Oxford, New York. Wolch, C., 1957, How Ontario clergy look at alcoholism, Alcoholism Research 4 (4): 1–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Popham
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Schmidt
    • 1
  • Jan de Lint
    • 1
  1. 1.Addiction Research FoundationTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations