Leaf and Blossom Epiphytes and Endophytes as Biological Control Agents

  • Arne Tronsmo
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 230)

Abstract

Biological control of plant diseases by endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms is a challenging opportunity for plant protection in the future. There are many examples in the litterature illustrating the potential of these organisms as biocontrol agents under controlled or laboratory-scale environments. However, isolates effective under controlled conditions did not always work in the field. The ability of potential antagonists to survive, grow and perform effectively under the often hostile environment on or in aerial plant parts has not been considered sufficiently when screening for biocontrol agents. A review of the current knowledge and suggestions for improvement is given.

Keywords

Biological Control Biocontrol Agent Endophytic Fungus Botrytis Cinerea Apple Scab 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Baker, C. J., Stavely, J. R., and Mock, N., 1985, Biocontrol of bean rust by Bacillus subtilis under field conditions, Plant Dis., 69: 770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barklund, P., 1989, Occurrence of and interaction between Gremmeniella abietina and endophytic fungi in two conifers, Ph. D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  3. Bhatt, D. D., and Vaughan, E. K., 1962, Preliminary investigations on biological control of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) of strawberries, Plant Dia. Rep., 46: 342.Google Scholar
  4. Bisiach, M., Minervini, G., Vercesi, A., and Zerbetto, F., 1985, Six years of experimental trials on biological control against grapevine grey mould, Quard. Vitic. Enol. Univ. Torino, 9: 285.Google Scholar
  5. Blakeman, J. P., 1981, “Microbial Ecology of the Phyllophane”, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  6. Blakeman, J. P., and Brodie, I. D. S., 1976, Inhibition of pathogens by epiphytic bacteria on aerial plant surfaces., Pages 529–557, In: “Microbiology of Aerial Plant Surfaces”. C. H. Dickinson and T. F. Preece, eds., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  7. Blakeman, J. P., and Brodie, I. D. S., 1977, Competition for nutrients between epiphytic micro-organisms and germination of spores of plant pathogens on beetroot leaves, Physiol. Plant Pathol., 10: 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blakeman, J. P., and Fokkema, N. J., 1982, Potential for biological control of plant diseases on the phylloplane., Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 20: 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boudreau, M. A., and Andrews, J. H., 1987, Factors influencing antagonism of Chaetomium globosum to Venturia inaequalis: A case study in failed biocontrol, Phytopathology, 77: 1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burrage, S. W., 1971, The micro-climate at the leaf surface., pages 91–101, In: “Ecology of Leaf Surface Micro-organisms”., T. F. Preece and C. H. Dickinson, eds., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  11. Carrol, G. C., 1986, The biology of endophytism in plants with particular reference to woddy plants, pages 205–222, In: “Microbiology of the Phyllosphere”., N. J. Fokkema and J. van den Heuvel, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  12. Chalutz, E., and Wilson, C. L., 1990, Postharvest biocontrol of green and blue mold and sour rot of citrus fruit by Debaryomyces hansenii, Plant Dis. 74: 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clay, K., 1986, Grass endophytes, pages 187–204, In: “Microbiology of the Phyllosphere”., N. J. Fokkema and J. van den Heuvel, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Clay, K., 1989, Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses: their potential as biocontrol agents, Mycol. Res., 92: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, M. A., 1982, Rust disease and development of phylloplane microflora of Antirrhidinum leaves, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 79: 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook, R. J., and Baker, K. F., 1983, “The Nature and Practice of Biological Control of Plant Pathogens”, American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minesota. USA.Google Scholar
  17. Cullen, D., and Andrews, J. H., 1984, Epiphytic microbes as biological control agents, pages 381–399, In: “Plant-microbe interactions. Molecular and genetic perspectives. Volume 1”, T. Kosuge and E. W. Nestler, eds., MacMillan Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  18. De Barry, A., 1866, “Morphologie und Physiologie der Pilze, Flechten und Myxomyceten”, Engelman, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  19. Dennis, C., and Webster, J., 1971a, Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma. I. Production of non-volatile antibiotics, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 57: 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dennis, C., and Webster, J., 1971b, Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma. II. Production of volatile antibiotics, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 57: 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dickinson, C. H., 1981, Biology of Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum in respect to their activity on green plants, pages 169–184, In: “Microbial Ecology of the Phyllophane”. J. P. Blakeman,ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  22. Dickinson, C. H., and Preece, T. F., 1976, “Microbiology of Aerial Plant Surfaces”, Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  23. Doherty, M. A., and Preece, T. F., 1978, Bacillus cereus prevents germination of urediniospores of Puccinia allii and the development of rust disease of leek, Allium porrum in controlled environments, Physiol. Plant Pathol., 21: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dubos, B., and Bulit, J., 1981, Filamentous fungi as biological control agents on areal plant surfaces, pages 353–367, In: “Microbial Ecology of the Phyllophane”., J. P. Blakeman,ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  25. Dubos, B., Bulit, J., Bugaret, Y., and Verdu, D., 1978, Possibilités d’utilisation de Trichoderma viride Pers. comme moyen biologique de lutte contre la pourriture grise (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) et 1’ excoriose ( Phomopsis viticola Sacc.) de la Vigne., C. R. Acad.Fr., 64: 1159.Google Scholar
  26. Dubos, B., Jailloux, F., and Bulit, J., 1982, Protection du vinoble contre la pourriture grise: les propriétés antagonistes du Trichoderma à 1’ égard du Botrytis cinerea, Les Colloques de l’INRA, 11: 205.Google Scholar
  27. D’Ercole, N., 1985, Lotta biologica alla muffa grigia (Botrytis cinerea) della fragola con applicazioni di Trichoderma viride, I L Fitopatol., 35: 35.Google Scholar
  28. Fokkema, N. J., 1971, The effect of pollen in the phyllosphere of rye on colonization by saprophytic fungi and on infection by Helmintosporium sativum and other leaf pathogens, Neth.J. Plant Pathol., 77 (suppl): 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fokkema, N. J., 1973, The role of saphrophytic fungi in antagonism against Drechslera sorokiniana (He]minthosporium sativum) on agar plates and on rye leaves with pollen, Physiol. Plant Pathol., 3: 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fokkema, N. J., 1981, Fungal leaf saprophytes, beneficial or detrimental?, pages 433–454, In: “Microbial Ecology of the Phylloplane”, J. P. Blakeman,ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  31. Fokkema, N. J., and Heuvel, J. van den, 1986, “Microbiology of the phyllosphere”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  32. Fokkema, N. J., Laar, J. A. J. V. D., Nelis-Bomberg, A. L., and Schippers, B., 1975, The buffering capacity of the natural mycoflora of rye leaves to infection by Cochliobolus sativus and its susceptibility to benomyl, Neth.J. Plant Pathol., 81: 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Furtado, I., 1969, Effect of copper fungicides on the occurrence of the pathogenic form of Colletotrichum coffeanum, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 53: 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gibbs, J. N., 1972, Effect of fungicides on the populations of Colletotrichum and other fungi on bark of coffee, Ann. Appl. Biol., 70: 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gitaitis, R. D., Jones, J. B., Jaworski, C.A., and Phatak, S.C., 1985, Incidence and development of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on tomato transplants in Georgia, Plant Dis., 69: 32.Google Scholar
  36. Grabski, G. C., and Mendgen, K., 1985, Einsatz von V. lecanii als biologisches Schadlingsbekampfungsmittel gegen Bohnenrostpilz U. appendiculatus var. appendiculatus im Feld und im Gewachshaus, Phytopath. Z., 113: 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gullino, M. L., 1992, Control of Botrytis rot of grapes and vegetables with Trichoderma, this volume.Google Scholar
  38. Gullino, M. L., Aloi, C., and Garibaldi, A., 1990, Chemical and biological control of gray mould of strawberry, Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent, 55 (3a): 967.Google Scholar
  39. Gullino, M. L., and Garibaldi, A., 1983, Situation actuelle et perspectives d’ avenir de la lutte biologique intégrée contre la pourriture grise de la vigne en Italie, Les Colloques de l’I’NRA, 18: 91.Google Scholar
  40. Henis, Y., and Bashan, Y., 1986, Epiphytic survival of bacterial leaf pathogens, pages 252–268, In: “Microbiology of the Phyllopshere”., N. J. Fokkema and J. van den Heuvel, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  41. Heye, C. C., and Andrews, J. H., 1983, Antagonism of Athelia bombacina and Chaetomium globosum to the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis, Phytopathology, 73: 650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Howell, C. R., and Stipanovic, R. D., 1980, Suppression of Pythium ultimuminduced damping-off of cotton seedlings by Pseudomonas fluorescens and its antibiotic, pyoluteorin, Phytopathology, 70: 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huber, D. M., and Watson, R. D., 1966, How valid is the agar plate inhibition test for determining antagonism between soil microorganisms?, Phytopathology, 56: 882.Google Scholar
  44. Jachmann, H. T., and Fehrmann, H., 1989, Effects of phyllosphere microorganisms on the senescence of wheat leaves, Z. PflKrankh. Pf1Schutz, 96: 124.Google Scholar
  45. Jarvis, W. R., and Slingsby, K., 1977, The control of powdery mildew of greenhouse cucumber by water sprays and Ampelomyces quisqualis, Plant Dis. Reptr., 61: 728.Google Scholar
  46. Kranz, J., 1981, Hyperparasitism of biotrophic fungi, pages 327–352, In: “Microbial Ecology of the Phylloplane”. J. P. Blakeman, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  47. Leben, C., 1964, Influence of bacteria isolated from healthy cucumber leaves on two leaf diseases on cucumber, Phytopathology, 54: 405.Google Scholar
  48. Leben, C., and Draft, G. C., 1965, Influence of an epiphytic bacterium on cucumber anthracnose, early blight on tomato, and nothern leaf blight of corn, Phytopathology, 55: 760.Google Scholar
  49. Lindow, S. E., 1985, Integrated control and role of antibiosis in biological control of fireblight and frost injury, pages 83–115, In: “Biological control on the phylloplane”, C. E. Windeis and S. E. Lindow, eds., The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul. Minnesota.Google Scholar
  50. Miedtke, U., and Kennel, W., 1990, Athelia bombacina and Chaetomium globosum as antagonists of the perfect stage of the apple scab pathogen (Venturia inaequalis) under field conditions, Z. PflKrank. Pf1Schutz, 97: 24.Google Scholar
  51. Minter, D. W., 1981, Possible biological control of Lophodermium seditiosum, pages 67–74, In: “Current Research of Conifer Needle Disease”, C. S. Millar, ed., Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  52. Donnel, J., and Dickinson, C. H., 1980, Pathogenicity of Alternaria and Cladosporium isolates on Phaseolus, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 74: 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Perombelon, M. C. M., 1981, The ecology of Erwinias on areal plant surfaces, pages 411–431, In: “Microbial Ecology of the Phylloplane”, J. P. Blakeman, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Petrini, O., 1986, Taxonomy of endophytic fungi of areal plant tissues,pages 175187, In: “Microbiology of the Phyllosphere”., N. J. Fokkema and J. van den Heuvel, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  55. Preece, T. F., and Dickinson, C. H., 1971, “Ecology of Leaf Surface Microorganisms”, Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  56. Pugh, G. J. F., and Buckley, N. G., 1971, The leaf surface as a substrate for colonization by fungi, pages 431–445, In: “Ecology of Leaf Surface Micro-organisms”., T. F. Preece and C. H. Dickinson, eds., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  57. Reinecke, P., 1981, Antagonism and biological control on aerial surfaces of the gramineae, pages 383–395, In: “Microbial Ecology of the Phylloplane”. J. P. Blakeman, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  58. Ruinen, J., 1966, The phyllosphere IV. Cuticle decomposition by micro-organisms in the phyllosphere, Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris), 111 (suppl.): 342.Google Scholar
  59. Rytter, J. L., Lukezic, F. L., Craig, R., and Moorman, G. W., 1989, Biological control of geranium rust by Bacillus subtilis, Phytopathology, 79: 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sharma, I. K., and Heather, W. A., 1988, Light and electron microscope studies on Cladosporium tenuissimum, mycoparasitic on poplar leaf rust, Melampspora larici-populina, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 90: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Silverthorn-Staroba, M., and MacChain, A. H., 1975, Effect of Penicillium and Bacillus spp. and benomyl on development of Pleospora calyx rot of carnation, Proc. Am. Phytopathol. Soc., 2: 118 (abstract).Google Scholar
  62. Sleesman, J. P., and Leben, C., 1976, Microbial antagonists Of Bipolaris maydis, Phytopathology, 66: 1214.Google Scholar
  63. Smedegaard-Petersen, V., and Tolstrup, K., 1986, Yield-reducing effect of saphrophytic leaf fungi in barley crops, pages 160–171, In: “Microbiology of the Phyllosphere”., N. J. Fokkema and J. van den Heuvel, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  64. Sundheim, L., and Amundsen, T., 1982, Fungicide tolerance in the hyperparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis and integrated control of cucumber powdery mildew, Acta Agric. Scand., 32: 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sundheim, L., and Tronsmo, A., 1988, Hyperparasites in biological control, pages 53–69, In: “Biocontrol of Plant Diseases”, K. G. Mukerji and K. L. Garg, eds., CRC Press Inc. Boca Ruton, Florida.Google Scholar
  66. Swinburne, T. R., Barr, J., and Brown, A. E., 1975, Production of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis and their effect on fungal colonists of apple leaf scars, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 65: 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sztejnberg, A., and Blakeman, J. P., 1973, Ultraviolet-induced changes in populations of epiphytic bacteria on beetroot leaves and their effect on germination of Botrytis cinerea spores, Physiol.Plant. Path., 3: 443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Teliz-Ortiz, M., and Burkholder, W., H., 1960, A strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens antagonistic to Pseudomonas phaseolicola and other bacterial plant pathogens, Phytopathology, 50: 119.Google Scholar
  69. Tronsmo, A., 1986, Trichoderma used as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea rots on strawberry and apple, Sci. Rep. Agric. Univ. Norway, 65 (17): 1.Google Scholar
  70. Tronsmo, A., 1991, Biological and integrated controls of Botrytis cinerea on apple with Trichoderma harzianum, Biol. Control 1: In press.Google Scholar
  71. Tronsmo, A., and Dennis, C., 1977, The use of Trichoderma species to control strawberry fruit rots, Neth. J. Plant Pathol., 83 (suppl. 1): 449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tronsmo, A., and Dennis, C., 1978, Effect of temperature on antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 71: 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tronsmo, A., and Raa, J., 1977a, Antagonistic action of Trichoderma pseudokoningii against the apple pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Phytopath. Z., 89: 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tronsmo, A., and Raa, J., 1977b, Life cycle of the dry eye rot pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. on apple, Phytopath. Z., 89: 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tronsmo, A., and Ystaas, J., 1980, Biological control of Botrytis cinerea on apple, Plant Dis., 64: 1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Uma, N. U., and Taylor, G. S., 1987, Parasitism of leek rust urediniospores by four fungi, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 88: 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Warren, R. C., 1972, The effect of pollen on fungal leaf microflora of Beta vulgaris L. and on infection of leaves by Phoma betae, Neth. J. Plant Pathol., 78: 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wood, R. K. S., 1951, The control of diseases of lettuce by use of antagonistic organisms. 1. The control of Botrytis cinerea Pers., Ann. Appl. Biol., 38: 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Young, C. S., and Andrews, J. H., 1990, Inhibition of pseudothecial development of Venturia inaequalis by the basidiomycete Athelia bombacina in apple leaf litter, Phytopathology, 80: 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Tronsmo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnological SciencesAgricultural University of NorwayAas-NLHNorway

Personalised recommendations