Biofeedback pp 153-177 | Cite as

The Use of Biofeedback in Disorders of Motor Function

  • Steven L. Wolf
  • M. Fischer-Williams

Abstract

Most physical therapeutic interventions are applied to patients with movement limitations resulting from weakness, central nervous system dysfunction, or a breakdown in appropriate integration of sensory information to effect purposeful motion. Inevitably clinicians in physical medicine and rehabilitation make use of their observational abilities and palpatory skills to instruct patients to improve motor performance. These instructions are often combined with a variety of neuromuscular reeducation techniques. In this framework clinicians typically provide verbal cues to a patient and, based on the clinician’s interpretation of the patient’s response, offer further information. In short, the clinician serves as a feedback interface to the patient.

Keywords

Spinal Cord Injury Stroke Patient Cerebral Palsy Physical Medicine Spinal Cord Injury Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asato, S., Twiggs, D. G., and Ellison, S. (1981). EMG biofeedback training for a mentally retarded individual with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 61, 1447–1452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basmajian, J. V. (1978). Conscious control and training of motor units and motor neurons. Muscles alive: Their functions revealed by electromyography (2nd ed., pp. 114–130 ). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  3. Basmajian, J. V. (Ed.). (1978). Therapeutic exercise ( 3rd ed. ). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  4. Basmajian, J. V., Kukulka, C. G., and Narayan, M. G. (1975). Biofeedback treatment of foot-drop after stroke compared with standard rehabilitation technique: Effects on voluntary control and strength. Archives Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 56, 231–236.Google Scholar
  5. Basmajian, J. V., Gowland, C., and Brandstater, M. E. (1982). EMG feedback treatment of upper limb in hemiplegic stroke patients: A pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63, 613–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baum, H. M., and Robins, M. (1981). Survival and prevalence. Stroke, 12, 59–68.Google Scholar
  7. Binder, S. A., Moll, C. B., and Wolf, S. L. (1981). Evaluation of electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to therapeutic exercise in treating the lower extremities of hemiplegic patients. Physical Therapy, 61, 886–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bobath, B., and Bobath, K. (1975). Motor development in the different types of cerebral palsy. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  9. Brudny, J., Korein, J., Levidow, L., Grynbaum, B., Lieberman A., and Friedmann, K. (1974). Sensory feedback therapy as a modality of treatment in central nervous system disorders of voluntary movement. Neurology, 24, 925–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brudny, J., Korein, J., and Grynbaum, B. B. (1976). EMG feedback therapy: Review of 114 patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57, 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brudny, J., Korein, J., Grynbaum, B. B. (1977). Sensory feedback therapy in patients with brain insult. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 9, 155–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burnside, I. G., Tobias, S., and Bursill, D. (1982). Electromyographic feedback in the re-mobilization of stroke patients: A controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63, 217–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cataldo, M. F., Bird, B., and Cunningham, C. (1978). Experimental analysis of EMG feedback in treating cerebral palsy. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 311–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cleeland, C. S. (1973). Behavioral techniques in the modification of spasmodic torticollis. Neurology, 23, 1241–1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernando, C. K., and Basmajian, J. V. (1978). Biofeedback in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 3, 435–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Finley, W. W. (1983). Operant conditioning of the short-latency cervical somatosensory evoked potential in quadriplegics. Experimental Neurology, 81, 542–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fish, D., Mayer, N., Herman, R. (1976). Letter to the editor: Biofeedback. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57, 152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Foltz, E. L. (1959). Experimental spasmodic torticollis. Journal of Neurosurgery, 16, 55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gianutsos, J., Eberstein, A., and Krasilowsky, G. (1979). EMG feedback in the rehabilitation of upper extremity function: Single case studies of chronic hemiplegics. International europsychological Society Bulletin, Symposium Issue, 1–12.Google Scholar
  20. Gilbert, G. J. (1977). Familial spasmodic torticollis. Neurology, 27, 11–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gildenberg, P. L., (1981). Comprehensive management of spasmodic torticollis. Seminar of Spinal Cord Stimulation, New York 1980. Applied Neurophysiology, 44, 233–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hume W. I. (1981). Biofeedback (Vol. 3, pp. 9–16). New York: Human Sciences Press. 1981, 9–16.Google Scholar
  23. Hurd, W. W., Pegram, V., and Nepumuceno, C. (1980). Comparison of actual and simulated MG biofeedback in the treatment of hemiplegic patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 59, 73–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson, H. E., and Garton, W. H. (1973). Muscle re-education in hemiplegia by use of electromyographic device. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 54, 320–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Korein, J., Brudny, J., Grynbaum, B., Sachs-Frankel, G., Weisinger, M., and Levidow, L. (1976). Sensory feedback therapy of spasmodic torticollis and dystonia: Results in treatment of 55 patients. In R. Eldridge and S. Fahn (Eds.), Advances in Neurology (Vol. 40 ). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  26. Lee, K.- H., Hill, E., and Johnston, R. (1976). Myofeedback for muscle retraining in hemiplegic patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57, 588–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Leiper, C. I., Miller, A., Lang, J., and Herman, R. (1981). Sensory feedback for head control in cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 61, 512–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. LeVeau, B. F., and Rogers, C. (1980). Selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using EMG biofeedback. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 60, 1410–1415.Google Scholar
  29. Levy, L. L. (1975). Examination and diagnosis. In S. Licht (Ed.), Stroke and its rehabilitation (pp. 78–105 ). Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lucca, J. A., and Recchiuti, S. J. (1983). Effect of electromyographic biofeedback on an isometric strengthening program. Physical Therapy, 63, 200–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Martin, P. R. (1982) Spasmodic torticollis: A behavioral perspective. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 249–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McCormick, W. F. (1975). The pathology of strokes. In S. Licht (Ed.), Stroke and its rehabilitation (pp. 46–77 ). Baltimore: Waverly Press.Google Scholar
  33. Middaugh, S. J. (1978). EMG feedback as a muscle re-education technique: A controlled study. Physical Therapy, 58, 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Middaugh, S. J., and Miller, M. C. (1980). Electromyographic feedback: Effect on voluntary muscle contractions in paretic patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 61, 24–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Middaugh, S. J., Miller, M. C., Foster, G. and Ferdon, M. B. (1982). Electromyographic feedback: Effects on voluntary muscle contractions in normal subjects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63, 154–160.Google Scholar
  36. Milner-Brown, H. S., and Penn, R. D. (1979). Pathophysiological mechanisms in cerebral palsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 42, 606–618.Google Scholar
  37. Mroczek, N., Halpern, D., and McHugh, R. (1978). Electromyographic feedback and physical therapy for neuromuscular retraining in hemiplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 59, 258–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nacht, M. B., Wolf, S. L., and Coogler, C. E. (1982). Use of electromyographic biofeedback during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy, 62, 290–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. National Institutes of Health. (1976). Neurological and communicative disorders: Estimated numbers and cost (DREW Publication No. (NIH)77–152. Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  40. Neilson, P. D., and McCaughey, J. (1982). Self-regulation of spasm and spasticity in cerebral palsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 45, 320–330.Google Scholar
  41. Prevo, A. J. H., Visser, S. L., and Vogelaar, T. W. (1982). Effect of EMG feedback on paretic muscles and abnormal co-contraction in the hemiplegic arm, compared with conventional physical therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 14, 121–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Robins, M., and Baum, H. M. (1981). Incidence. In F. D. Weinfeld (Ed.), Stroke (pp. 45–55 ).Google Scholar
  43. Romanul, R. (1976). Some anatomical and pathophysiological aspects of clinical importance in stroke. In F. J. Gillingham, C. Mawdsley, and A. E. Williams (Eds.), Stroke (pp. 167–177 ). London: Churchill-Livingstone.Google Scholar
  44. Rusk, H. A. (1971). Rehabilitation medicine ( 3rd ed. ). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.Google Scholar
  45. Santee, J. L., Keister, M. E., and Kleinman, K. M. (1980). Incentives to enhance the effects of electromyographic feedback training in stroke patients. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5, 51–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scoville, W. B., and Bettis, D. B. (1979). Motorics of the head and neck: Surgical approaches and their complications. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 48, 47–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seeger, B. R., and Caudrey, D. J. (1983). Biofeedback therapy to achieve symmetrical gait in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: Long-term efficacy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 64, 160–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Seeger, B. R., Caudrey, D. J., and Scholes, J. R. (1981). Biofeedback therapy to achieve symmetrical gait in hemiplegic cerebral palsied children. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 62, 364–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sheehy, M. P., and Marsden, C. D. (1980). Trauma and pain in spasmodic torticollis. Lancet, 1, 777–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shahani, B. T., Connors, L., and Mohr, J. P. (1977). Electromyographic audiovisual feedback training effect on the motor performance in patients with lesions of the central nervous system. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 58, 519.Google Scholar
  51. Shiavi, R. G., Champion, S. A., and Freeman, F. R. (1979). Efficacy of myofeedback therapy in regaining control of lower extremity musculature following stroke. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 58, 185–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Skelly, A. M., and Kenedi, R. M. (1982). EMG biofeedback therapy in the re-education of the hemiplegic shoulder in patients with sensory loss. Physiotherapy, 68, 34–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Skrotzky, K., Gallenstein, J. B., and Osternig, L. R. (1978). Effects of electromyographic feedback training on motor control in spastic cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 58, 547–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Stauffer, E. S. (1977). Long-term management of traumatic quadriplegia. In D. S. Pierce and V. H. Nickel (Eds.), The total care of spinal cord injuries (pp. 81–102 ). Boston, MA: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  55. Swann, D., vanWieringen, P. C. W., and Fokkema, S. D. (1974). Auditory electromyographic feedback therapy to inhibit undesired motor activity. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 55, 251–254.Google Scholar
  56. Takebe, K. and Basmajian, J. V. (1976). Gait analysis in stroke patients to assess treatments of foot-drop. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57, 305–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Teng, E. L., McNeal D. R., and Kralj, A. (1976). Electrical stimulation and feedback training: Effect on the voluntary control of paretic muscles. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57, 228–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Towbin, A. (1955). Pathology of cerebral palsy. I. Developmental defects of the brain as a cause of cerebral palsy. AMA Archives of Pathology, 59, 397–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Towbin, A. (1960). The pathology of cerebral palsy. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  60. Walmsley, R. P., Crichton, L., and Droog, D. (1981). Music as a feedback mechanism for teaching head control to severely handicapped children: A pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 739–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wolf, S. L. (1982). Biofeedback rehabilitation of the incomplete spinal cord injured patientRegional Rehabilitation Research and Training Center Grant No. G008003042 ). Washington, DC: National Institute of Handicapped Research.Google Scholar
  62. Wolf, S. L. (1983). Electromyographic biofeedback applications to stroke patients: A critical review. Physical Therapy, 63, 1448–1445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wolf, S. L., and Binder-Macleod, S. A. (1983a). Electromyographic biofeedback applications to the hemiplegic patient: Changes in upper extremity neuromuscular and functional status. Physical Therapy, 63, 1393–1403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wolf, S. L., and Binder-Macleod, S. A. (1983b). Electromyographic biofeedback applications to the hemiplegic patient: Changes in lower extremity neuromuscular and functional status. Physical Therapy, 63, 1404–1413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Wolf, S. L., Baker, M. P., and Kelly, J. L. (1979). EMG biofeedback in stroke: Effect of patient characteristics. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 60, 96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wolf, S. L., Baker, M. P., and Kelly, J. L. (1980). EMG biofeedback in stroke: A 1-year follow up on the effect of patient characteristics. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 61, 351–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Young, J. S. and Northup, N. E. (1979). Statistical information pertaining to some of the most commonly asked questions about SCI. Model Systems’ SCI Digest, 1, 11–33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven L. Wolf
    • 1
  • M. Fischer-Williams
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.MilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations