Abstract

Interest in “Natural Antioxidants” continues to grow for a variety of reasons. It is tempting to utilize substances presumed to be safe since they occur in nature and in foods which have been used for hundreds or even thousands of years. Thus one could avoid the problems of proof of safety of synthetic compounds. Attempts are also made to find substances which are less costly or have other desirable characteristics. Certain substances having antioxidant properties are formed inadvertently by processing or cooking foods. Also, technologists attempt to maximize the utilization of plant or animal products involved in food processing operations. It is precarious to try to define natural antioxidants but generally the term alludes to substances which occur in and can be extracted from plant or animal tissues and those which may be formed as a consequence of cooking or processing plant or animal components for food.

Keywords

Soybean Flour Methyl Linoleate Protein Hydrolysate Natural Antioxidant Rosemary Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel-Rahman, A.H. and Soad, A.M.Y., 1975, Mastich as an Antioxidant, J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., 52: 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrose, A.M., Robbins, D.J., and DeEds. F., 1961, Acute subacute toxicity of aminohexose reductones, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., 106: 656.Google Scholar
  3. Bauernfiend, J.C. Pinkert, D.M., 1970, Food processing with added ascorbic acid, Adv. Fd. Res., 18: 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishov, S.J. and Henick, A.S., 1972, Antioxidant effect of protein hydrolysates in a freeze-dried model system, J. Fd. Sci., 37: 873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishov, S.J. and Henick, A.S., 1975, Antioxidant effect of protein hydrolysates in freeze-dried model systems. Synergistic action with a series of phenolic antioxidants, J. Fd. Sci., 40: 345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishov, S.J. and Henick, A.S., 1976, Natural Antioxidants, Encycl. Fd. Technol. (M. Peterson, Ed. ) 536.Google Scholar
  7. Bedford, C.L. and Joslyn M. A., 1937, Oat flour and hexane extract of oat flour as antioxidant for shelled walnuts and walnut oil, Fd. Res., 2: 455.Google Scholar
  8. Brandt, P., Hollstein, E. Franzke, C., 1973, The pro-and antioxidant effects of phosphatides. A literature survey, Lebensmittel-Ind., 20: 31.Google Scholar
  9. Chang, S.S., Ostric-Matijasevic, B., Hsieh, 0.A.H., and Huang, C-Li, 1977, Natural antioxidants from rosemary and sage, J. Food Sei., 42: 1102.Google Scholar
  10. Chipault, J.R., Mizuno, G.K., Hawkins, J.M., and Lundberg, W.O., 1952, The antioxidant properties of natura] spices, Fd. Res., 17: 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chipault, J.R., 1957, 32 spices gauged as antioxidants, Fd. Engng., 29: 134.Google Scholar
  12. Corbett, W.J. and Tracy P.H., 1937, Use of antioxidants to prevent tallowiness in butter, Nat. Butter Cheese J., 28: 10.Google Scholar
  13. Cort, W.M., 1974a, Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate, and ascorbic acid and their mode of action, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc., 51: 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cort, W.M., 1974, Hemoglobin peroxidation test screens antioxidants, Fd. Technol., 28: 60.Google Scholar
  15. Crawford, D.L., Sinnhuber, R.A., and Aft. H., 1961, Effect of methylation on the antioxidant and chelation capacity of quercetin and dihydroquercetin in a lard substrate, J. Fd. Sci., 26: 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cutting, W., Furst, A., Read, Dorothy, Read, G. and Packman, Henriette, 1960, Circling syndrome produced in mice by dimethylhexose reductone, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med., 104: 381.Google Scholar
  17. Dahlia, C.D. and Nelson, D.H., 1941, Antioxygenic fractions of oat and soybean flour, J. Dairy Sei., 24: 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daniels, D.G.H. and Martin, H.F., 1965, Antioxidants in oats: diferulates of long chain diols, Chem. and Ind., 42: 1963.Google Scholar
  19. Daniels, D.G.H. and Martin, H.F., 1967, Antioxidants in oats: monoesters of caffeic and ferulic acids, J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 18: 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dugan, L.R. and Kraybill, H.R., 1956, Tocopherols as carrythough antioxidants, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc., 33: 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fujimoto, K., and Kaneda, T., 1976, Antioxygenic activity of sea algae, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc., 53: 460A.Google Scholar
  22. Grettie, D.P., 1933, Gum guaiac-a new antioxidant for oils and fats, Oil and Soap, 10: 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Golovkina, M.T., Novotelnov, N.V., and Sedova, V.V., 1966, Leucoanthocyanins of rosehips and their synergism with ascorbic acid, (in Russian) Fenolnye Soedin IKH, Biol. Funkts, Mater. Vses, Simp. 1st (pub 1968) 189–95 (Chem. Abstr. 1969, 71:10261 r).Google Scholar
  24. Golovkina, M.T. and Novotelnov, N.V., 1966, Leucoanthycyanins of dog rose fruit as inhibitors of ascorbic acid oxidation. (In Russian). Tr. Vses. Semin. Biol. Aktiv. (Lech.) Veschestram Plodov. Yagod 3rd (pub. 1968), 413–8, (Chem. Abstr. 1970, 73:45757 a).Google Scholar
  25. Hermann, K., 1976, Flavonols and flavones in food plants; a review, J. Fd. Technol., 11: 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Husaini, S.M., Raghavendar Rao, S., and Saletore, S.A., 1957, Aca-catechin-a new antioxidant, II. J. Sci. Ind. Res. (India), 16A: 128.Google Scholar
  27. Hwang, C.I. and Kim, D.H., 1973 Korean J. Fd. Sci. and Technol. 5:84.Google Scholar
  28. Jacobson, G. (Campbell Soup Co.), 1973, Spice antioxidant principle and process for the extraction of the antioxidant principle from spice, U.S. Pat. 3, 732, 111.Google Scholar
  29. Kajimoto, G., 1963, Antioxidative components and antiseptic components in tea leaves. I. Antioxidant action and antiseptic action of materials extracted from tea leaves with alcohol and water. II. Paper chromatographic examination of antioxidant components and antiseptic components in tea leaves. (In Japanese) Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 10: 13.Google Scholar
  30. Kaufman, H.P. and Elbaya, A.E.W., 1967, Pro-and antioxidants in the field of fats. XXI. Phenolic compounds of vegetable origin, Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel, 69: 236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kawashima, K.,Itoh, H. and Chibata I., 1977, Antioxidant activity of browning products prepared from low molecular carbonyl compounds and amino acids, J. Agr. Fd. Chem. 25:202.Google Scholar
  32. Klaui, H., 1976, Tocopherol, carotene, and ascorbyl palmitate, Int. Flavors Fd. Additivies, 7: 165.Google Scholar
  33. Kovats, L.T. nd Berndorfer-Kraszner, E., 1968, On the antioxidative mechanism of a,ß,y and d-tocopherols in lard, Nahrung, 12: 407.Google Scholar
  34. Kroschel, H., Grumert, S. and Franzke, C., 1973, The importance of carotene and chlorophyll colors to the fat industry, Lebensmittel, Ind., 20: 317.Google Scholar
  35. Lea, C.H. and Ward, R.J., 1959, Relative antioxidant activity of the seven tocopherols, J. Sci. Fd. Agr., 10: 537.Google Scholar
  36. Letan. A.,1966a, Relation of structure to antioxidant activity of quercetin and some of its derivatives. Primary activity. J. Fd. Sci. 31:518Google Scholar
  37. Letan, A., 19666, The relation of structure to antioxidant activity of quercetin and some of its derivatives. II. Secondary (metal complexing) activity, J. Fd. Sci., 31: 395.Google Scholar
  38. Marcuse, R., 1962, The effect of some amino acids on the oxidation of linoleic acid and its methyl ester, J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., 39: 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mehta, A.C. and Seshadri, T.R., 1959, Flavonoids as antioxidants, J. Sci. Ind. Res. (India), 18B: 24.Google Scholar
  40. Meisinger, M.A.P., Kuehl, R.A., Jr., Forbes, M., Zilliken, F., and Gyorgy P., 1959, The structure of a new product from yeast, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 81: 4979.Google Scholar
  41. Merzametov, M.M. and Gadzhieva, L.I., 1976, Certain amino acids as antioxidants in butter fat, (In Russian) Izv. ucheb. zaved. Pishchev. Teknol. No. 6 (115) 21.Google Scholar
  42. Mihelic, F., 1975, Antioxidant activity of some substances of plant origin, Hranai Ishrava, 16, 143 (Fd. Sci. Technol. Abstr., 1976, 8, Abstr, no. 9A483.Google Scholar
  43. Mike, N. and Akalsu, K., 1972, Antioxidants in tomatoes, II. Composition and antioxidant activity of flavonoids in tomatoes. (In Japanese, English summary) Nichon Shohukin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 19: 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mueller, W.S. and Mack, M.J., 1939, Cereal flours and antioxidants in dairy products, Fd. Res. 4: 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Musher, S., 1935, Cereals and seeds inhibit rancidity in lard. Fd. Ind., 7: 167.Google Scholar
  46. Musher Foundation Inc., 1936, Inhibiting oxidation of foods and other packaged products, U.S. Pat. 2,038, 752.Google Scholar
  47. Musher Foundation Inc., 1944, Oat extract useful as an antioxidant for foods and beverages of various kinds, U.S. Pat. 2,355, 097.Google Scholar
  48. Montedaro, G. 1972 Phenolic constituents of virgin olive oils. I. Identification of some phenolic acids and their antioxidant capacity, (In Italian) Scienza Technol. degli Alimenti 2:177–86.Google Scholar
  49. Notte, E.L. and Romito, N., 1971, Autoxidation of olive oil; influence of polyphenols, (In Italian) Industrie Agrarie, 9: 325.Google Scholar
  50. Olcott, H.S. and Lin, J. S., 1974, Free radical antioxidants for unsaturated lipids, Proc IV. Int. Congr. Fd. Sci. and Technol. 1: 482.Google Scholar
  51. Olcott, H.S. and VanderVeen, J., 1963, Role of individual phospholipids as antioxidants, J. Fd. Sci., 28: 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Overmann, A., 1947, Antioxidant effect of soybean flours in frozen pastry, Fd. Res., 12: 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Overmann, A., 1951, Antioxidant effect of soybean flours and cottonseed flours in raw pastry mixes and baked pastry, Fd. Res., 16: 39.Google Scholar
  54. Peters, F.N., Sr., and Musher, S., 1937, Oat flour as an antioxidant, Ind. Eg. Chem. 29: 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pokorny, J., Davidek, J., and Janicek, G., 1964, Stability of fats and its influence. X. Antioxidative effect of extracts from green tea. XI. Antioxidative activity of extracts of black tea. (In German) Sb. vys. SK. Chem-Technol. Praze, Potravinarska Technol, 8: 271 (285).Google Scholar
  56. Pratt, D.E., 1965, Lipid antioxidants in plant tissue, J. Fd. Sei., 30: 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pratt, D.E., 1972, Water-soluble antioxidant activity in soybean, J. Fd. Sci., 37: 322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Revankar, G.D., 1974, Prolihe as an antioxidant in fish oil, J. Fd. Sci. Technol., Mysore, 11: 10.Google Scholar
  59. Rhee, C. and Kim, D.H., 1975, Antioxidant activity of acetone extracts obtained from a caramelization type browning reaction, J. Fd. Sei., 40: 460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sangor, M.R. and Pratt, D.E., 1974, Lipid oxidation and fatty acid changes in beef combined with vegetables and textured vegetable protein, J. Am. Diet. Ass’n., 64: 268.Google Scholar
  61. Schuller, W., 1957, The role of 13-carotene in the oxidation of butter, Milchwissen Ber., 7: 1.Google Scholar
  62. Sen, D.P., and Paiival, R.A., 1970, Effect of certain proteins on the stabilization of fish oil, J. Fd. Sci. Technol (Mysore), 7: 153.Google Scholar
  63. Simpson, T.H. and Uri, N., 1956, Hydroxyflavones as inhibitors of the aerobic oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, Chem. and Ind., 956.Google Scholar
  64. Smith, J.L., and Alford, J.A., 1970, Presence of antioxidant materials in bacteria, Lipids, 5, (10), 795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sugimura, T. (by J.L. Fox) 1978, Chem. and Eng. News 24.Google Scholar
  66. Taufel, K. and Muller, R., 1941, Chemistry of fat spoilage. XIV. Iron as an active constituent of the antioxygen complex of oatmeal, Biochem. Z., 310: 152.Google Scholar
  67. Taufel, K. and Rother, 1944, Chemistry of fat spoilage. XIV. Bitter extract of oat and its antioxidative effect, Fette Seifen Anstr/Mittel, 50: 434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vela, F.M. and Roncero, A.V., 1962, Natural antioxidants from olive leaves 11. (In Spanish) Grasas Aceit, 13: 124.Google Scholar
  69. Watanabe, Y. and Ayano, Y., 1974, The antioxidative activities of distilled water-soluble and ethanol-soluble fractions from ground spices, J. Japan Soc., Food and Nutrition, 27: 181.Google Scholar
  70. Wintzel, W., 1953 Nurupan, a new soya product for the food industry, Int. Choc. Rev. 8 (6) 149.Google Scholar
  71. Yuki, E. and Ishikawa, Y., 1976, Tocopherol contents of nine vegetable frying oils and their changes under simulated deep-fat frying conditions, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc., 53: 673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zaika, L.L. and Smith, J.L., 1975, Antioxidants and pigments of Aspergillus niger, J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 26: 1357.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. R. Dugan
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Food Science and Human NutritionMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations