Essential Elements of the Assessment Process

  • Rune J. Simeonsson
  • Donald B. BaileyJr.
Part of the Perspectives in Developmental Psychology book series (PDPS)

Abstract

The commitment to early intervention for handicapped infants and young children is reflected in the rapid growth of a variety of home- and center-based programs in recent years. Although the need for such programs has been established, documentation has been more difficult to achieve. Central to these problems has been the fact that the assessment instruments and procedures have been less than adequate to meet the unique demands of an immature population with limited functional skills that are often confounded by sensory and motor impairments. The special assessment problems associated with early intevention have been elaborated in a number of contributions to the literature (Bricker, 1978; Simeonsson, Huntington, & Parse, 1980). Although these assessments problems have had a negative effect in complicating the documentation of early intervention effects, they have had a positive effect in highlighting the need for alternative assessment instruments and procedures in broad (Bricker, 1978) as well as specific (Cicchetti & Sroufe, 1976) domains of development. Given this context, the purpose of this chapter is to (a) define the role of assessment with handicapped infants and young children, (b) discuss the particular problem of population variability in assessment, (c) review several models for specifying child characteristics; and (d) propose elements of an assessment approach for describing children in terms of their functional capabilities.

Keywords

Cerebral Palsy Handicapped Child Child Characteristic Global Index Intentional Communication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1968). American psychiatry association diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Bagnato, S. J., Jr., Neisworth, J. T. (1980). The intervention efficiency index: An approach to preschool program accountability. Exceptional Children, 46, 264–269.Google Scholar
  3. Bagnato, S. J., Neisworth, J. T., & Eaves, R.C. (1978). A profile of perceived capabilities for the preschool child. Child Care Quarterly, 7, 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, D. B., Clifford, R. M., & Harms, R. (1982). Comparison of preschool environments for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 2(1), 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brassell, D. R. (1977). Intervention with handicapped infants: Correlates of progress. Mental Retardation, 15, 18–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bricker, D. (1978). Early intervention: The criteria of success. Allied Health and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 567–582.Google Scholar
  7. Bricker, P. & Sheehan, R. (1981). Effectiveness of an early intervention program as indexed by child change. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 4, 11–27.Google Scholar
  8. Cicchetti, D., & Sroufe, A. (1976). The relationship between affective and cognitive development in Down syndrome infants. Child Development, 47, 920–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dollar, S. J., & Brooks, C. (1980). Assessment of severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. Exceptional Education Quarterly, 1, 87–101.Google Scholar
  10. Dunst, C. J., & Rheingrover, R.M. (1981). An analysis of the efficacy of infant intervention programs with organically handicapped children. Evaluation and Program Planning, 4, 287–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ebel, R. L. (1978). The case for norm-referenced measurements. Educational Researcher, 7(11), 3–5.Google Scholar
  12. Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., & Fleiss, J. L. (1976). The Global Assessment Scale: A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 766–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldkamp, O. (1984). Treatment effectiveness in cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 65, 232–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hobbs, N. (1978). Classification options. Exceptional Children, 44, 494–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hobbs, N. (1975). The future of children. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  16. Holt, K. S. (1957). A suggested medical classification of handicapped children. Archives of the Diseases of Childhood, 32, 226–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holt, K. S. (1977). Developmental pediatrics: Perspectives and Practice. London: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  18. Horn, S. O., Cashick, B., & Clayton, C. (1980). Measuring severity of illness; A reliability study. Medical Care, 21, 705–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kenden, R. E. (1983). The principles of classification in relation to mental disease. In M. Shepard & O.L. Zangwill (Eds.), Handbook of psychiatry: Vol. 1. General psychopathology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lindon, R. L. (1963). The Pultibec system for the medical assessment of handicapped children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 5, 125–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meads, S. (1983). The World Health Organization’s reason-for-encounter classification. WHO Chronicle, 37, 159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Popham, W. J. (1978). The case for criterion-referenced measurements. Educational Researcher, 7(11), 6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Preus, M., & Rex, A. P. (1983). Definition and diagnosis of the Brachmann-DeZange syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 16, 301–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rutter, M., Shaffer, D., & Shepherd, M. (1975). A multi-axial classification of child psychiatric disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  25. Shaffer, D., Gould, M.S., Brasic, J., Ambrosini, P., Fisha, P., Bird, H., & Aluwahlia, S. (1983). A Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1228–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sheehan, R., & Keogh, B. (1982). Design and analysis in the evaluation of early childhood special education program. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 1, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Simeonsson, R. J., (1982). Intervention, accountability and efficiency indices: A rejoinder. Exceptional Children, 48, 358–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Simeonsson, R. J. (1986). Psychological and developmental assessment of special children. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  29. Simeonsson, R. J., Huntington, S. S., & Parse, S. A. (1980). Assessment of children with severe handicaps: Multiple problems, multivariate goals. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 5, 55–72.Google Scholar
  30. Simeonsson, R. J., & Wiegerink, R. (1975). Accountability: A dilemma in infant intervention. Exceptional Children, 41, 474–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Simeonsson, R. J., Cooper, D. H., & Scheiner, A. P. (1982). A review and analysis of the effectiveness of early intervention program. Pediatrics, 69, 635–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sontag, E., Smith, J., & Sailor, W. (1977). The severely/profoundly handicapped: Who are they? Where are they? Journal of Special Education, 11, 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stein, R. E., & Jessop, R. E. K., (1983). A noncategorical appoach to chronic childhood illness. Public Health Reports, 97, 354–362.Google Scholar
  34. Wolery, M. (1983). Proportional change index: An alternative for comparing child change data. Exceptional Children, 1983, 50, 167–170.Google Scholar
  35. World Health Organization. (1980). International Classification of Impairment Disabilities and Handicaps. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rune J. Simeonsson
    • 1
  • Donald B. BaileyJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education and FAMILIES Project, Carolina Institute for Research on Early Education of the Handicapped, Frank Porter Graham Child Development CenterUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations