Analysis of Classical Biological Control Programs

  • Robert van den Bosch
  • P. S. Messenger
  • A. P. Gutierrez

Abstract

As noted in Chapter 8, p. 128 or more pest insects and weeds have been completely or substantially controlled by imported natural enemies (Table 9.1). Some of these have been of minor or localized status, while others have been species of continental distribution and great economic importance. In certain cases success was attained with but modest effort, while in others success came only after elaborate preparation, dogged perseverance over many years, and great expense. Among the pest insects, by far the greatest number of successes have been scored against homopterous species, particularly diaspine and lecaniine scales. Some researchers have suggested that scale insects are particularly amenable to biological control because, being sessile during much of their life cycle, they cannot escape or avert natural enemies, and the colonies once found are vulnerable to maximum exploitation. But others point out that scale insects are particularly common pests of horticultural crops such as citrus, and that the considerable success against them may simply reflect the greater emphasis placed on biological control of such orchard pests. There is probably some validity to each contention, but this is perhaps irrelevant, for striking successes have also been scored against species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera in a variety of situations. This is evidence enough that the chances for successful biological control exist across a wide spectrum of the major pest groups.

Keywords

Biological Control Natural Enemy Nova Scotia Scale Insect Biological Control Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blunck, H. 1957. Pieris rapae (L.) its parasites and predators in Canada and United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 50: 835–836.Google Scholar
  2. Boese, G. 1936. Der Einfluss tierscher Parasiten auf den Organismus der Insecken. Z. Parasitenk. 8: 253–284.Google Scholar
  3. Broodryk, S. W., and R. L. Doutt. 1966. Studies of two parasites of olive scale Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) in California. 2. The biology of Coccophagoides utilis Doutt (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). Hilgardia 37: 233–254.Google Scholar
  4. Clausen, C. P., D. W. Clancy, and Q. C. Chock. 1965. Biological control of the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1322. 102 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Davis, C. J. 1967. Progress in the biological control of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula variety smaragdula (Fabricius) in Hawaii (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae). Mushi 39: 9–16.Google Scholar
  6. DeBach, P. 1964. Successes, trends, and future possibilities. In: P. DeBach (ed.) Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds, Chap. 24. Chapman & Hall: London. pp. 673–713.Google Scholar
  7. DeBach, P., and L. C. Argyriou. 1967. The colonization and success in Greece of some imported Aphytis spp. (Hym. Aphelinidae) parasitic on citrus scales (Horn. Diaspididae). Entomophaga 12: 325–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Embree, D. G. 1971. The biological control of the winter moth in eastern Canada by introduced parasites. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.) Biological Control Chap. 9. pp. 217–268. Plenum Press: New York. 511 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Hafez, M., and R.L. Doutt. 1954. Biological evidence of sibling species in Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). Can. Entomol. 86: 90–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hawkes, R. B. 1968. The cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae, for control of tansy ragwort. J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 499–501.Google Scholar
  11. Holloway, J. K., and C. B. Huffaker. 1952. Insects to control a weed. In: Insects, Yearbook of Agriculture for 1952, pp. 135–140. U. S. Govt. Printing Office: Washington, D. C. Huffaker, C. B. 1966. A comparison of the status of biological control of St. Johnswort in California and Australia. In: Natural Enemies in the Pacific Area Eleventh Pac. Sci. Cong., Tokyo. pp. 51–73.Google Scholar
  12. Huffaker, C. B., and C. E. Kennett. 1959. A ten-year study of vegetational changes associated with biological control of Klamath weed. J. Range Manage. 12: 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huffaker, C. B.,,and C. E. Kennett. 1966. Studies of two parasites of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee). 4. Biological control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) through the compensatory action of two introduced parasites. Hilgardia 37: 283–335.Google Scholar
  14. Huffaker, C. B., C. E. Kennett, and G. L. Finney. 1962. Biological control of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) in California by imported Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). Hilgardia 32: 541–636.Google Scholar
  15. Kobakhidze, D. N. 1965. Some results and prospects of the utilization of beneficial entomophagous insects in the control of insects in Georgian S.S.R. (USSR). Entomophaga 10: 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Laing, J. E., and J. Hamai. 1976. Biological control of insect pests and weeds by imported parasites, predators, and pathogens. In: C. B. Huffaker and P. S. Messenger (eds.) Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press: New York. pp. 685–693.Google Scholar
  17. Mathys, G., and E. Guignard. 1965. Etude de l’efficacité de Prospaltella perniciosi Tow. en Suisse parasite du pou de San Jose. Entomophaga 10: 193–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. National Academy of Sciences. 1968. The biological control of weeds. In: Principles of Plant and Animal Pest Control. Vol. II, Chap. 6. Nat. Acad. Sci. Publ. 1597. pp. 86–119.Google Scholar
  19. Parker, F. D. 1971. Management of pest populations by manipulating densities of both hosts and parasites through periodic releases. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.) Biological Control, Chap. 16. Plenum Press: New York. pp. 365–376.Google Scholar
  20. Parker, E. D., F. R. Lawson, and R. E. Pennell. 1971. Suppression of Pieris rapae using a new control system: Mass releases of both the pest and its parasites. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 721–735.Google Scholar
  21. Puttler, B., F. D. Parker, R. E. Pennell, and S. E. Thewke. 1970. Introduction of Apanteles rubecula into the United States as a parasite of the imported cabbageworm. J. Econ. Entomol. 63: 304–305.Google Scholar
  22. Richards, O. W. 1940. The biology of the small white butterfly (Pieris rapae), with special reference to the factors controlling its abundance. J. Anim. Ecol. 9: 243–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rosen, D., and P. DeBach. 1976. Biosystematic studies on the species of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Mushi 49: 1–17.Google Scholar
  24. Shuster, M. F., J. C. Boling, and J. J. Marony, Jr. 1971. Biological control of Rhodesgrass scale by airplane releases of an introduced parasite of limited dispersing ability. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.) Biological Control, Chap. 10. Plenum Press: New York. pp. 227–250.Google Scholar
  25. Smith, J. M. 1958. Biological control of Klamath weed, Hypericum perforatum L. in British Columbia. Proc. 10th Int. Congress Ent. Montreal ( 1956 ) 4: 561–565.Google Scholar
  26. Tooke, F. G. C. 1953. The eucalyptus snout-beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll. A study of its ecology and control by biological means. Union S. Africa, Dept. Agric. Entomol. Mem. 3. 283 pp.Google Scholar
  27. van den Bosch, R. 1971. Biological control of insects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2: 45–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. van den Bosch, R., E. I. Schlinger, J. C. Hall, and B. Puttler. 1964. Studies on succession, distribution, and phenology of imported parasites of Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) in Southern California. Ecology 45: 602–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. van den Bosch, R., B. D. Frazer, C. S. Davis, P. S. Messenger, and R. Horn. 1970. Trioxys pallidus-An effective new walnut aphid parasite from Iran. Calif. Agric. 28: 8–10.Google Scholar
  30. Wilkinson, A. T. S. 1966. Apanteles rubecula Marsh and other parasites of Pieria rapae in British Columbia. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 1012–1018.Google Scholar
  31. Zwolfer, H., M. A. Ghani, and V. P. Rao. 1976. Foreign exploration and importation of natural enemies. In: C. B. Huffaker and P. S. Messenger (eds.) Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press: New York. pp. 189–205.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert van den Bosch
    • 1
  • P. S. Messenger
    • 1
  • A. P. Gutierrez
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biological ControlUniversity of California, BerkeleyAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations