Biomass Burning: Local and Regional Redistribution

  • J. Edy
  • S. Cautenet
Part of the NATO • Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 22)

Abstract

Tropical biomass biogeochemistry is one of the most poorly understood on the earth. The tropics account for about 60% of the global annual net primary productivity and this enormous productivity is characterized by many chemical species which are emitted as gas or aerosols and can modify the global radiative balance. Biomass burning is associated with agricultural activity in the savannah, the destruction of tropical forests and the use of wood as “fuel”. They release into the atmosphere large quantities of CO2 and a variety of chemically active species such as CO, NOx, N2O, CH4, and others expressed in (1, 2). The biomass annually burned in the world represents about 1.8 to 4.7 GT. of carbon (3), savannah fires being the dominant component with about 1-1.6 GT. of carbon burned. Savannah fires alone contribute approximately 10% of the global CO emissions. This phenomenon is especially important in Africa. The contribution of African savannah fires to global emission of trace gas and aerosols has been estimated by (4). During dry season, pollution events are similar in magnitude to those observed in industrialised regions as observed in high levels of acid precipitation that were reported in these region (5).

Keywords

Biomass Burning Free Troposphere Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Monsoon Flow Regional Atmospheric Modeling System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Crutzen, P. J., A. C. Delany, I. Greenberg, P. Haagenson, L. Heidt, R. Lueb, W. Pollock, W. Seiler. A. Wartburg, and P. Zimmerman, Tropospheric chemical composition measurements in Brazil during the dry season, J. Atmos. Chem., 2, 233–256 (19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Greenberg et al.: Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil. J. Geophy. Res., 89, 1350–1354 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    Crutzen P.J. and Andreae M.O., Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biological cycles, Science, 1669-1677 (1990).Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Lacaux J.P., Cachier H. and R. Delmas, Biomass Burning in Africa: an overview of its impact on atmospheric chemistry, Fire in the Environment: The ecological, atmospheric and climatic importanceof vegetation fires, edited by P.J. Crutzen and J.G. Goldammer (1993).Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Lacaux J.P., R. Delmas, G. Kouadio, B. Cros and M.O. Andreae: Precipitation chemistry in the Mayombe forest of equatorial Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6195-6206.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Marenco A.E., Perros, J. Sanak, J.C. Le Roulley and B. Bonsang, Campagne méridienne aéroportée TROPOZ II, final report,75 p(1993).Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Pielke R.A., W.R. Cotton, R.L. Walko, C.J. Tremback, M.E. Nicholls, M.D. Moran, D.A. Wesley, T.J. Lee, and J.H. Copeland, A comprehensive meteorogical modeling system-RAMS, Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 49, 69–91 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Dickinson R.E., A. Henderson-Seller, et P.J. Kennedy., Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) Version le as Coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model, NCAR Technical Note-387 emissions from biomass burning in Brazil. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 1350–1354 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Lelieveld J and P.J. Crutzen, Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone. Nature, 343, 227–233 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Lelieveld J and P.J. Crutzen, The role of clouds in tropospheric photochemistry. J. Atm. Chem., 12, 229–267 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Wesely M.L., Parameterization of surface resistance to gaseous dry deposition in regional scale numerical models. Atmos. Environ., 23, 1293–1304 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Clark, T.L. et R.D. Farley, Severe downslope windstorm calculations in two and three spatial dimensions using anelastic interactive grid nesting: A possible mecanism for gustiness., J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 329–350 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Edy
    • 1
  • S. Cautenet
    • 1
  1. 1.LaMP/OPGCCNRS and Université Blaise PascalAubièreFrance

Personalised recommendations