Risk and Resource Variables in Children’s Aggressive Behavior

A Two-Year Longitudinal Study
  • Eric F. Dubow
  • Graham J. Reid
Part of the The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)

Abstract

Interpersonal aggression creates numerous problems for victims, perpetrators, and society in general. The prevalence estimates of conduct disorder in children and adolescents are approximately 5% (e.g., Offord, Boyle, & Racine, 1991). Definitions of aggression are numerous and include aggressive behaviors which vary in levels of severity. Eron (1987) defined aggression as, “an act that injures or irritates another person” (p. 435). This definition subsumes most others and avoids issues related to intentionality, which may be difficult to ascertain in children.

Keywords

Social Support Parenting Stress Stressful Life Event Elementary School Child Resource Variable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting stress index-manual ( 3rd ed. ). Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, D. S., and Bates, J. E. ( 1990, May). Attributional style, life stress, and social support as predictors of depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors in early adolescence. Paper pre- sented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  3. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a mediator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, L. H., Burt, C. E., and Bjorck, J. P. (1987). Life stress and adjustment: Effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Developmental Psychology, 23, 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., and Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 393–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Compas, B. E., Wagner, B. M., Slavin, L. A., and Vannatta, K. (1986). A prospective study of life events, social support, and psychological symptomatology during the transition from high school to college. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 241–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cowen, E. L., and Work, W. C. (1988). Resilient children, psychological wellness, and primary prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 591–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cowen, E. L., Weissberg, R. P., and Guare, J. (1984). Differentiating attributes of children referred to a school mental health program. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 397–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deluty, R. H. (1981). Alternative-thinking ability of aggressive, assertive, and submissive children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 309–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dodge, K. A., and Crick, N. R. (1990). Social information-processing biases of aggressivebehavior in children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 8–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubow, E. F. (1988). Aggressive behavior and peer social status of elementary school children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dubow, E. F., and Luster, T. (1990). Adjustment of children born to teenage mothers: The contributions of risk and protective factors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 393–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubow, E. F., and Tisak, J. (1989). The relation between stressful life events and adjustment in elementary school children: The role of social support and social problem-solving skills. Child Development, 60, 1412–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubow, E. F., Tisak, J., Causey, D., Hryshko, A., and Reid, G. (1991). A two-year longitudinal study of stressful life events, social support, and social problem-solving skills: Contributions to children’s behavioral and academic adjustment. Child Development, 62, 583–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dubow, E. F., and Ullman, D. G. (1989). Assessing social support in elementary school children: The survey of children’s social support. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eron, L. D. (1987). The development of aggressive behavior from the perspective of a developing behaviorism. American Psychologist, 42, 435–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eron, L. D., Walder, L. O., and Lefkowitz, M. M. (1971). Learning of aggression. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  19. Fischler, G. L., and Kendall, P. C. (1988). Social cognitive problem solving and childhood adjustment: Qualitative and topological analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 133–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garmezy, N. (1983). Stressors of childhood. In: N. Garmezy, and M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping, and development in children (pp. 43–84 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  21. Garmezy, N., Masten, A., and Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children. Child Development, 55, 97–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guerra, N. C., and Slaby, R. G. (1990). Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders: 2. Intervention. Developmental Psychology, 26, 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hightower, A. D., Work, W. C., Cowen, E. L., Lotyczewski, B. S., Spine II, A. P., Guare, J. C., and Rohrbeck, C. A. (1986). The teacher-child rating scale: A brief objective measure of elementary children’s school problem behaviors and competencies. School Psychology Review, 15, 393–409.Google Scholar
  24. Holahan, C. J., and Moos, R. H. (1981). Social support and psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 365–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huesmann, L. R. (1988). An information-processing model for the development of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., and Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kashani, J. H., and Shepperd, J. A. (1990). Aggression in adolescents: The role of social support and personality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 311–315.Google Scholar
  28. Kendall, P. C., Ronan, K. R., and Epps, J. (1991). Aggression in children/adolescents: Cognitive-behavioral treatment perspectives. In: D. J. Pepler and K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 341–360 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Lefkowitz, M. M., Eron, L. D., Walder, L. O., and Huesmann, L. R. (1977). Growing up to be violent: A longitudinal study of the development of aggression. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  30. Loeber, R. (1982). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior. A review. Child Development, 53, 1431–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Loeber, R., and Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1987). Prediction. In: H. C. Quay (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile delinquency (pp. 325–382 ). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. McGee, R., Silva, P., and Williams, S. (1983). Parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of behaviour problems in seven year old children. The Exceptional Child, 30, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miller, D. C. (1977). Handbook of research design and social measurement. New York: McKay.Google Scholar
  35. Moskowitz, D. S., Schwartzman, A. E., and Ledingham, J. E. (1985). Stability and change in aggression and withdrawal in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 30–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. C., and Racine, Y. A. (1991). The epidemiology of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. In: D. J. Pepler and K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 31–54 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Parker, G. R., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Sr Wyman, P. A. (1990). Test correlates of stress affected and stress resilient outcomes among urban children. Journal of Primary Prevention, 11, 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Patterson, G. R. (1976). The aggressive child: Victim and architect of a coercive system. In: E. J. Mash, L. A. Hamerlynck, and L. C. Handy (Eds.), Behavior modification and families: Vol. 1. Theory and research (pp. 267–316 ). New York: Brunner/Masel.Google Scholar
  39. Patterson, G. R., DeBarsyche, B. D., and Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pepler, D. J., King, G., and Byrd, W. (1991). A social-cognitively based social skills training program for aggressive children. In: D. J. Pepler and K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression, (pp. 361–379 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Pollack, G., Gilmore, C., Stewart, J., and Mattison, S. (1989). A follow-up of aggressive behaviour in children. Educational Review, 41, 263–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Quay, H. C., and Peterson, D. P. (1983). Interim manual for the revised behavior problem checklist. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami.Google Scholar
  43. Quay, H. C., and Peterson, D. P. (1984). Appendix Ito the interim manual for the revised behavior problem checklist. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami.Google Scholar
  44. Rolf, J., Masten, A. E., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. H., and Weintraub, S. (Eds.) (1990). Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Rubin, K. H., Bream, L. A., and Krasnor, L. R. (1991). Social problem solving and aggression in childhood. In: D. Pepler and K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 219–248 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In: M. W. Kent and J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Social competence in children, (pp. 49–74 ). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  47. Rutter, M. (1985). Aggression and the family. Series Paedopsychiatric Fasc., 6, 11–25.Google Scholar
  48. Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In: J. Rolf, A. E. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein, and S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 118–214 ). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Sandler, I. N., Miller, P., Short, J., and Wolchik, S. (1989). Social support as a protective factor for children in stress. In: D. Belle (Ed.), Children’s social networks and social supports (pp. 277–307 ). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Stattin, H., and Magnusson, D. (1989). The role of early aggressive behavior in the frequency, seriousness, and types of later crimes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 710–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sterling, S., Cowen, E. L., Weissberg, R. P., Lotyczewski, B., and Boike, M. (1985). Recent stressful events and young children’s school adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 87–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Webster-Stratton, C. (1988). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of child deviance: Roles of parent and child behaviors and parent adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 909–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Webster-Stratton, C., and Hammond, M. (1988). Maternal depression and its relationship to life stress, perceptions of child behavior problems, parenting behaviors, and child conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 299–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Werner, E. E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., and Parker, G. R. (1991). Developmental and family milieu correlates of resilience in urban children who have experienced major life stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 405–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Zelkowitz, P. (1987). Social support and aggressive behavior in young children. Family Relations, 36, 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric F. Dubow
    • 1
  • Graham J. Reid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA

Personalised recommendations