Adolescent Peer Social Competence

A Critical Review of Assessment Methodologies and Instruments
  • Heidi M. Inderbitzen
Part of the Advances in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ACCP, volume 16)

Abstract

An important social task for all individuals, but especially for adolescents, is the development and maintenance of positive peer relations. Friendships play an increasingly important role in socialization during adolescence with family ties typically becoming less important as relationships with peers assume greater significance (Bell, 1981; Berndt, 1982). Researchers (e.g., Bell, 1981; Douvan & Adelson, 1966; Kon & Losenkov, 1978) have found that adolescents consistently rate their friends as being more important than parents and other family members in terms of understanding, emotional support, companionship, and approval. Furthermore, researchers suggest that positive peer relations in adolescence are essential to the development of skills, foster a sense of belonging, and are important precursors to behavioral and emotional adjustment (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984; Kelly & Hansen, 1987).

Keywords

Social Skill Social Competence Adolescent Population Social Skill Training Teacher Rating Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J. P., Weissberg, R. P., & Hawkins, J. A. (1989). The relation between values and social competence in early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 458–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asher, S. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1986). Identifying children who are rejected by their peers. Developmental Psychology, 22, 444–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asher, S. R., Markell, R. A., & Hymel, S. (1981). Identifying children at risk in peer relations: A critique of the rate-of-interaction approach. Child Development, 52, 1239–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, R. (1981). Worlds of friendship. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Bellack, A. S. (1979). Behavioral assessment of social skills. In A. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Research and practice in social skills training (pp. 75–104). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bellack, A. S. (1983). Recurrent problems in the behavioral assessment of social skill. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellack, A. S., & Hersen, M. (1977). Self-report inventories in behavioral assessment. In J. D. Cone & R. P. Hawkins (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: New directions in clinical psychology (pp. 52–76). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  8. Berndt, T. J. (1982). The features and effects of friendship in early adolescence. Child Development, 53, 1447–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bierman, K. L. (1989). Improving the peer relationships of rejected children. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 53–84). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bierman, K. L., & Furman, W. (1984). The effects of social skills training and peer involvement on the social adjustment of preadolescents. Child Development, 55, 151–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bierman, K. L., & McCauley, E. (1987). Children’s descriptions of their peer interactions: Useful information for clinical child assessment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blaske, D. M., Borduin, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., & Mann, B. J. (1989). Individual, family, and peer characteristics of adolescent sex offenders and assaultive offenders. Developmental Psychology, 25, 846–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boivin, M., & Begin, G. (1989). Peer status and self-perception among early elementary school children: The case of the rejected children. Child Development, 60, 591–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & Wheatley, P. (1984). Peer interaction in the presence and absence of observers. Child Development, 55, 1425–1428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buhrmester, D. (1990). Intimacy of friendship, interpersonal competence, and adjustment during preadolescence and adolescence. Child Development, 61, 1101–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bukowski, W. M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15–45). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  17. Caplan, M. Z., & Weissberg, R. P. (1989). Promoting social competence in early adolescence: Developmental considerations. In B. H. Schneider, G. Attili, J. Nadel, & R. P. Weissberg (Eds.), Social competence in developmental perspective (pp. 371–385). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cavell, T. A., & Kelley, M. L. (1992). The Measure of Adolescent Social Performance: Development and initial validation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Christensen, A., & Hazzard, A. (1983). Reactive effects during naturalistic observation of families. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 349–362.Google Scholar
  20. Christoff, K. A., Scott, W. O., Kelley, M. L., Schlundt, D., Baer, G., & Kelly, J. A. (1985). Social skills and social problem-solving training for shy young adolescents. BehaviorTherapy, 16, 468–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark, L., Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1985). Development and validation of a social skills assessment measure: The TROSS-C. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 4, 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Continuities and changes in children’s social status: A five-year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29, 261–282.Google Scholar
  23. Coie, J. D., & Krehbiel, G. (1984). Effects of academic tutoring on the social status of low-achieving, socially rejected children. Child Development, 55, 1465–1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 17–59). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Coie, J. D., Terry, R., & Christopoulos, C. (1991, April). Social networks as mediators of the relation between peer status, social behavior and adolescent adjustment. In J. Kupersmidt & S. Hymel (Chairs), Factors influencing children’s dyadic and group relationships. Symposium conducted at the Biennial Meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development.Google Scholar
  27. Coleman, W. L., & Lindsay, R. L. (1992). Interpersonal disabilities: Social skill deficits in older children and adolescents: Their description, assessment, and management. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 39, 551–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Conger, J. C., & Conger, A. J. (1986). Assessment of social skills. In A. R. Ciminero, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment (2nd ed.) (pp. 526–560). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  29. Connolly, J. (1989). Social self-efficacy in adolescence: Relations with self-concept, social adjustment, and mental health. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 21, 258–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crick, N. R., & Ladd, G. W. (1989). Nominator attrition: Does it affect the accuracy of children’s sociometric classifications? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 35, 197–207.Google Scholar
  31. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1984). Being adolescent: Conflict and growth in the teenage years. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  32. Curran, J. P. (1979). Social Skills: Methodological issues and future directions. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Research and practice in social skills training (pp. 319–354). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  33. Dodge, K. A. (1989). Problems in social relationships. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders (pp. 222–244). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dodge, K. A., & Murphy, R. R. (1984). The assessment of social competence in adolescents. In P. Karoly & J. J. Steffan (Eds.), Advances in child behavioral analysis and therapy (vol. 3, pp. 61–96). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  35. Douvan, E., & Adelson, J. (1966). The adolescent experience. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Duck, S. W. (1983). Friends for life: The psychology of close relationships. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  37. Elliott, S. N., & Gresham, F. M. (1989). Teacher and self-ratings of popular and rejected adolescent boys’ behavior. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 7, 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foster, S. L., & Cone, J. D. (1986). Design and use of direct observation. In A. R. Ciminero, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment (2nd ed.) (pp. 253–324). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  39. Foster, S. L., & Ritchey, W. L. (1979). Issues in the assessment of social competence in children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 625–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foster, S. L., DeLawyer, D. D., & Guevremont, D. C. (1985). Selecting targets for social skills training with children and adolescents. In K. D. Gadow (Ed.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (vol. 4, pp. 77–132). London: JAI Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  41. Foster, S. L., DeLawyer, D. D., & Guevremont, D. C. (1986). A critical incidents analysis of liked and disliked peer behaviors and their situational Chapaumeters in childhood and adolescence. Behavioral Assessment, 8, 115–133.Google Scholar
  42. Foster, S. L., Inderbitzen, H., & Nangle, D. W. (1993). Assessing acceptance and social skills with peers in childhood: Current issues. Behavior Modification, 17, 255–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Francis, G., & Ollendick, T. H. (1987). Peer group entry behavior. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 9, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Franco, D. P., Christoff, K. A., Crimmins, D. B., & Kelly, J. A. (1983). Social skills training for an extremely shy young adolescent: An empirical case study. Behavior Therapy, 14, 568–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frankel, K. A. (1990). Girls’ perceptions of peer relationship support and stress. Journal of Early Adolescence, 10, 69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freedman, B. J., Rosenthal, L., Donahoe, C., Schlundt, D., & McFall, R. (1978). A social-behavioral analysis of skill deficits in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescent boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1448–1462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frentz, C., Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1991). Popular, controversial, neglected, and rejected adolescents: Contrasts of social competence and achievement differences. Journal of School Psychology, 29, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Furman, W., & Robins, P. (1985). What’s the point: Selection of treatment objectives. In B. Schneider, K. H. Rubin, & J. E. Ledingham (Eds.), Children’s peer relations: Issues in assessment and intervention (pp. 41–54). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gresham, F. M. (1983). Social validity in the assessment of children’s social skills: Establishing standards for social competency. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1, 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gresham, F. M., & Cavell, T. A. (1986). Assessing adolescent social skills. In R. G. Harrington (Ed.), Testing adolescents: A reference guide for comprehensive psychological assessment (pp. 93–123). Kansas City: Test Corporation of America.Google Scholar
  51. Gresham, F. M., Elliott, S. N., & Black, F. L. (1987a). Factor structure replication and bias investigation of the Teacher Rating of Social Skills. Journal of School Psychology, 25, 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gresham, F. M., Elliott, S. N., & Black, F. L. (1987b). Teacher-rated social skills of main-streamed mildly handicapped and nonhandicapped children. School Psychology Review, 16, 78–88.Google Scholar
  53. Hansen, D. J., MacMillan, V. M., & Shawchuck, C. R., (1991). Social isolation. In E. L. Feindler & G. R. Kalfus (Eds.), Adolescent behavior therapy handbook (pp. 165–190). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Hansen, D. J., St. Lawrence, J. S., & Christoff, K. A. (1989). Group conversational-skills training with inpatient children and adolescents: Social validation, generalization, and maintenance. Behavior Modification, 13, 4–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hansen, D. J., Watson-Perczel, M., & Christopher, J. S. (1989). Clinical issues in social-skills training with adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 365–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Wells, E. A. (1986). Measuring effects of a skills training intervention for drug abusers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 661–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Henggeler, S. W., Watson, S. M., & Whelan, J. P. (1990). Peer relations of hearing-impaired adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 15, 721–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hymel, S., Wagner, E., & Butler, L. J. (1990). Reputational bias: View from the peer group. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 156–186). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, H. (1991). Agreement between adolescents’ self- and peer-report of social behavior. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  60. Inderbitzen, H. M., & Foster, S. L. (1992). Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: Development, reliability and validity. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4, 451–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jamison, R. N., Lambert, E. W., & McCloud, D. J. (1986). Social skills training with hospitalized adolescents: An evaluative experiment. Adolescence, 21, 55–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kalfus, G. (1990). Adolescent behavioral assessment. In E. L. Feindler & G. R. Kalfus (Eds.), Adolescent behavior therapy handbook (pp. 53–105). New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  63. Kazdin, A. E., Matson, J. L., & Esveldt-Dawson, K. (1984). The relationship of role-play assessment of children’s social skills to multiple measures of social competence. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kelly, J. A., & Hansen, D. (1987). Social interactions and adjustment. In V. B. Van Hasselt & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 131–146). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  65. Kennedy, J. H. (1988). Issues in the identification of socially incompetent children. School Psychology Review, 17, 276–288.Google Scholar
  66. Kolko, D. J., Dorsett, P. G., & Milan, M. A. (1981). A total-assessment approach to the evaluation of social skills training: The effectiveness of an anger control program for adolescent psychiatric patients. Behavioral Assessment, 3, 383–402.Google Scholar
  67. Kon, I., & Losenkov, V. (1978). Friendship in adolescence: Values and behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. LaGreca, A. M., & Santogrossi, D. A. (1980). Social skills training with elementary school students: A behavioral group approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 220–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Loranger, M., & Arsenault, R. (1989). Self-evaluation questionnaire of social skills for adolescents in high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mash, E. J., & Terdal, L. G. (1981). Behavioral assessment of childhood disturbance. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders (pp. 3–64). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  71. Matson, J. L., Esveldt-Dawson, K., & Kazdin, A. E. (1983). Validation of methods for assessing social skills in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 174–180.Google Scholar
  72. Matson, J. L., Heinze, A., Helsel, W. J., Kapperman, G., & Rotatori, A. (1986). Assessing social behaviors in the visually handicapped: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY). Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., & Helsel, W. J. (1983). Development of a rating scale to measure social skills in children: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 335–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McFall, R. M. (1982). A review and reformulation of the concept of social skills. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moskowitz, D. S., Schwartzman, A. E., & Ledingham, J. E. (1985). Stability and change in aggression and withdrawal in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 30–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Myers, J. E., & Nelson, W. M. (1986). Cognitive strategies and expectations as components of social competence in young adolescents. Adolescence, 21, 291–303.Google Scholar
  77. Ollendick, T. H., Greene, R. W., Francis, G., & Baum, C. G. (1991). Sociometric status: Its stability and validity among neglected, rejected and popular children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 525–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ollendick, T. H., & Hersen, M. (1984). Child behavioral assessment: Principles and procedures. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  79. Ollendick, T. H., Weist, M. D., Borden, C., & Greene, R. W. (1992). Sociometric status and academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 80–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children “at risk”? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Parkhurst, J. T., & Asher, S. R. (1987). The social concerns of aggressive-rejected children. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  82. Parkhurst, J. T., Roedel, T. D., Bendixen, L. D., & Potenza, M. T. (1991). Subgroups of rejected middle school students: Their behavioral characteristics, friendships, and social concerns. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  83. Pekarik, E. G., Prinz, R. J., Liebert, D. E., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J. M. (1976). The Pupil Evaluation Inventory: A sociometric technique for assessing children’s social behavior. journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 83–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pentz, M. W. (1980). Assertion training and trainer effects on unassertive and aggressive adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27, 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pleinis, A. J., Hansen, D. J., Ford, F., Smith, S., Stark, L. J., & Kelly, J. A., (1987). Behavioral small group training to improve the social skills of emotionally-disordered adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 18, 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Price, J. M., & Dodge, K. A. (1989). Peers contributions to children’s social maladjustment. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 341–370). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  87. Prinz, R. J., Swan, G., Liebert, D. E., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J. M. (1978). ASSESS: Adjustment Scales for Sociometric Evaluation of Secondary-School Students. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 493–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Reis, H. T. (1983). Naturalistic approaches to studying social interaction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  89. Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonnel process. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of research in personal relationships (pp. 367–389). London: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  90. Renwick, S., & Emier, N. (1991). The relationship between social skills deficits and juvenile delinquency. British journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Spence, S. H., & Liddle, B. (1990). Self-report measures of social competence for children: An evaluation of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Youngsters and the List of Social Situation Problems. Behavioral Assessment, 12, 317–336.Google Scholar
  92. Stinnett, T. A., Oehler-Stinnett, J., & Stout, L. J. (1989). Ability of the Social Skills Rating System-Teacher Version to discriminate behavior disordered, emotionally disturbed and nonhandicapped students. School Psychology Review, 18, 526–535.Google Scholar
  93. Terry, R., & Coie, J. D. (1991). A comparison of methods for defining sociometric status among children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 867–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tolan, P. H. (1987). Implications of age of onset for delinquency risk. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 47–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Van Hasselt, V. B., Hersen, M., Whitehill, M. B., & Bellack, A. S. (1979). Social skill assessment and training for children: An evaluative review. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 413–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Veneziano, C., & Veneziano, L. (1988). Knowledge of social skills among institutionalized juvenile delinquents: An assessment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 15, 152–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Waksman, S. A. (1985). The development and psychometric properties of a rating scale for children’s social skills. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 3, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Weist, M. D., Ollendick, T. H., & Finney, J. W. (1991). Toward the empirical validation of treatment targets in children. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 515–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heidi M. Inderbitzen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations