The Fate of Particles and Particle-Reactive Trace Metals in Coastal Waters: Radioisotope Studies in Microcosms

  • Peter H. Santschi
  • Dennis M. Adler
  • Michael Amdurer
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 9)

Abstract

Many trace metals rapidly adsorb to suspended particles when introduced to the water column of coastal marine environments. The transport of these particles and “particle-reactive” trace metals from the water column to the sediments was studied using radiotracer techniques in large microcosm tanks simulating Narragansett Bay.

Transfer rates of radioactive trace metals and plastic particles (“tracer microshperes”) to the sediments were much greater in mid-summer than in mid-winter. This coincided with an order-of-magnitude higher particle flux through the water column due to higher sediment resuspension rates in the summer. Laboratory experiments using settling cylinders showed that interaction between the water column and bottom sediments greatly accelerates the deposition velocities of particles. Experiments using a zooplankton cage and sediment traps in the microcosm tanks indicated further that in shallow marine environments zooplankton filter feeding is a much less important transfer process than filter-feeding by benthic organisms which may greatly increase the removal rates of particles and particle-reactive trace metals from the water column during the summer.

Keywords

Water Column Trace Metal Removal Rate Fecal Pellet Sediment Trap 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Pilson, M.E.Q., C.A. Oviatt, G.A. Vargo and S.L. Vargo, 1979: Replicability of MERL microcosms: Initial observations. In: F.S. Jadoff, ed., “Advances in Marine Environmental Research”, Proceedings of a Symposium, June 1977, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, R.I., EPA–600/9–79–05, 359–381.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pilson, M.E.Q., C.A. Oviatt and S.W. Nixon, 1980: Annual nutrient cycles in a marine microcosm. In: J.P. Giesy, ed., “Microcosms in Ecological Research”, DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, Georgia, Nov. 8–10, 1978. CONF781101, National Technical Information Service, 753–778.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nixon, S.W., D. Alonso, M.E.Q. Pilson and B.A. Buckley, 1980: Turbulent mixing in aquatic microcosms. In: J.P. Giesy, ed., “Microcosms in Ecological Research”, DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, Georgia, Nov. 8–10, 1978. CONF- 781101, National Technical Information Service, 818–849.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Santschi, P.H., D.M. Adler, M. Amdurer, Y.-H. Li and J. Bell, 1980: Thorium isotopes as analogues for “particle-reactive” pollutants in coastal marine environments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 47, 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elmgren, R., J.F. Grassle, J.P. Grassle, D.R. Heinle, G. Langlois, S.L. Vargo and G.A. Vargo, 1980: Trophic interactions in experimental marine ecosystems perturbed by oil. In: J.P. Giesy, ed., “Microcosms in Ecological Research”, DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, Georgia, Nov. 8–10, 1978. CONF-781101, National Technical Information Service, 779–800.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adler, D.M., M. Amdurer and P.H. Santschi, 1980: Metal tracers in two marine microcosms: Sensitivity to scale and configuration. In: J.P. Giesy, ed., “Microcosms in Ecological Research”, DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, Georgia, Nov. 8–10, 1978. CONF-781101, National Technical Information Service, 348–368.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amdurer, M., D.M. Adler and P.H. Santschi, 1981: The use of radiotracers in studies of trace metal behavior in microcosms: Advantages and limitations, In: G.D. Grice, ed., “Marine Mesocosms: Biological and Chemical Research in Experimental Ecosystems”, Springer Verlag, 81–95.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hinga, K.R., R.F. Lee, J.W. Farrington, M.E.Q. Pilson, K. Tjessem and A.C. Davis, 1980: Biogeochemistry of benzanthracene in an enclosed marine ecosystem. Environ. Sci. Technol. 14, 1136–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee, R.F., K. Hinga and G. Almquist, 1981: Fate of radio-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol in enclosed marine ecosystems. In: G.D. Grice, ed., “Marine Mesocosms: Biological and Chemical Research in Experimental Ecosystems”, Springer Verlag, 123–136.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amdurer, M. D.M. Adler and P.H. Santschi, 1982: Studies of the chemical forms of trace elements in sea water using radiotracers. This volume.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aston, S.R. and R. Chester, 1973: The influence of suspended particles on the precipitation of iron in natural waters. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 1, 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moore, W.S. and W.M. Sackett, 1964: Uranium and Thorium series inequilibrium in sea water. J. Geophys. Res. 69, 5401–5405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhat, S.G., S. Krishnaswami, D. Lal, Rama and W.S. Moore, 1969: 234Th/238U ratios in the ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 5, 483–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Broecker, W.S., A. Kaufman and R.M. Trier, 1973: The residence time of thorium in surface seawater and its implications regarding the fate of reactive pollutants. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 20, 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knauss, K.G., T.L. Ku and W.S. Moore, 1978: Radium and thorium isotopes in the surface waters of the East Pacific and coastal southern California. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 39, 235–249.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li, Y.-H., H.W. Feely and P.H. Santschi, 1979: 228Th 228Ra radioactive disequilibrium in the New York Bight and its implications to coastal pollution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 42, 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li, Y.-H., H.W. Feely and J.R. Toggweiler, 1980:228Ra and 228Th concentrations in GEOSECS.Atlantic surface waters. Deep-Sea Res. 27A, 545–555.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Feely, H.W., G.W. Kipphut, R.M. Trier and C. Kent, 1980: 228 Ra and228Th in coastal waters. Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 11, 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duursma, E.K. and D. Eisma, 1973: Theoretical, experimental and field studies concerning reactions of radioisotopes with sediments and suspended particles of the sea. Part C: Applications to field studies. Neth. J. Sea Res. 6, 256–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Santschi, P.H., Y.-H. Li and J. Bell, 1979: Natural radionuclides in the water of Narragansett Bay. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 45, 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bloesch, J. and N.M. Burns, 1980: A critical review of sedimentation trap technique. Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 42/1, 15–55.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adler, D.M., P.H. Santschi, M. Chervin, K. Hinga and M. Amdurer, 1982: The importance of zooplankton grazing to the removal of metals from shallow estuaries. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    LaRosa, J., 1976: A simple system for recovering zooplanktonic fecal pellets in quantity. Deep-Sea Res. 23, 995–997.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dodson, A.N. and W.H. Thomas, 1964: Concentrating plankton in a gentle fashion. Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 455–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hinga, K.R., P.G. Davis and J. McN. Sieburth, 1979: Enclosed chambers for the convenient reverse flow concentration and selective filtrations of particles. Limnol. Oceanogr. 24(3), 536–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gardner, W.D., 1980a: Sediment trap dynamics and calibration: a laboratory evaluation. J. Mar. Res.. 38(1), 17–39.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gardner, W.D., 1980b: Field assessment of sediment traps. J. Mar. Res. 38(1), 41–52.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lal, D., 1980: Comments on some aspects of particulate transport in the oceans. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 49, 520–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hunt, C.: Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I., 02881, U.S.A., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Santschi, P.H., S. Carson and Y.-H. Li, 1981: Natural radionuclides as tracers for geochemical processes in MERL mesocosms and Narragansett Bay, In: G.D. Grice, ed., “Marine Mesocosms: Biological and Chemical Research in Experimental Ecosystems”, Springer Verlag, 97–110.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lowman, F.G., T.R. Rice and F.A. Richards, 1971: Accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides by marine organisms. In: “National Academy of Sciences, Panel on Radioactivity in the Marine Environment, NRC:, 161–199.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haven, D.S. and R. Morales-Alamo, 1966: Aspects of biodeposition by oysters and other invertebrate filter feeders. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11, 487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jorgensen, C. and E.D. Goldberg, 1953: Particle filtration in some ascidians and lamellibranchs. Biol. Bull. 105, 477–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Osterberg, C., A.G. Carey and H. Curl, 1963: Acceleration of sinking rates of radionuclides in the ocean. Nature 200, 1276–1277.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Higgo, J.J.W., R.D. Cherry, M. Heyraud and S.W. Fowler, 1977: Rapid removal of plutonium from the oceanic surface layer by zooplankton fecal pellets. Nature, London 266, 623–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Beasley, T.M., M. Heyraud, J.J.W. Higgo, R.D. Cherry and S.W. Fowler, 1978: 2i0 Po and 210 Pb in zooplankton fecal pellets. Marine Biology 44, 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Higgo, J.J.W., R.D. Cherry, M. Heyraud, S.W. Fowler and T.M. Beasley, 1980: Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets. Natural Radiation Environment III, CONF-780422, Vol. I, NTIS, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 502–513.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fowler, S.W., G. Benayoun and L.F. Small, 1981: Experimental studies on feeding, growth and assimilation in a Mediterranean Euphausiid. Thalassia Jugosl. 7, 47–55.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Turekian, K.K., J.K. Cochran, L.K. Benninger and R.C. Aller, 1980: The sources and sinks of nuclides in Long Island Sound. Advances in Geophysics 22, 129–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter H. Santschi
    • 1
  • Dennis M. Adler
    • 1
  • Michael Amdurer
    • 1
  1. 1.Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia UniversityPalisadesUSA

Personalised recommendations