Time Pressure in Negotiation and Mediation

  • Peter J. Carnevale
  • Kathleen M. O’Connor
  • Christopher McCusker

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of time pressure in negotiation and mediation. Negotiation can be defined as discussion between two or more parties and joint decision making with the goal of reaching agreement. Mediation is a variation on negotiation in which one or more outsiders (“third parties”) assist the parties in their efforts to reach agreement.

Keywords

Time Pressure Risk Attitude Reservation Price Loss Aversion Negotiation Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ben-Yoav, O., & Pruitt, D. G. (1984). Accountability to constituents: A two-edged sword. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brookmire, D., & Sistrunk, F. (1980). The effects of perceived ability and impartiality of mediators and time pressure on negotiation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24, 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carnevale, P. J., & Conlon, D. E. (1988). Time pressure and strategic choice in mediation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 42, 111–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carnevale, P. J., & Lawler, E. J. (1986). Time pressure and the development of integrative agreements in bilateral negotiation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 30, 636–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carnevale, P. J., & Pruitt, D. G. (1992). Negotiation and mediation. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 531–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carnevale, P. J., Gentile, S., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (1993). Loss aversion versus risk attitude in bilateral negotiation. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, R., & Carnevale, P. J. (1990). Effects of asymmetric time pressure on mediator perceptions and behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the Judgment and Decision Making Society, New Orleans, November 1990.Google Scholar
  8. Dunlop, J. T., & Healy, J. J. (1955). Collective bargaining: Principles and cases. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.Google Scholar
  9. Hamner, W. C. (1974). Effects of bargaining strategy and pressure to reach agreement in a stalemated negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 458–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hansson, R. O., Keating, J. P., & Terry, C. (1974). The effects of mandatory time limits in the voting booth on liberal-conservative voting patterns. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4, 336–342.Google Scholar
  11. Janis, I. L., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kelley, H. H., Beckman, L. L., & Fischer, C. S. (1967). Negotiating the division of reward under incomplete information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3, 361–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Komorita, S. S., & Barnes, M. (1969). Effects of pressures to reach agreement in bargaining. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kressel, K., & Pruitt, D. G. (1989). Mediation research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Pruitt, D. G. (1981). Negotiation behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Pruitt, D. G., & Drews, J. L. (1969). The effect of time pressure, time elapsed, & the opponent’s concession rate on behavior in negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pruitt, D. G., & Johnson, D. F. (1970). Mediation as an aid to face-saving in negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Raiffa, H. (1982). The art and science of negotiation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Raiffa, H. (1983). Mediation of conflicts. American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 195–210.Google Scholar
  19. Rubin, J. Z., & Brown, B. (1975). The social psychology of bargaining and negotiations. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Smith, D. L., Pruitt, D. G., & Carnevale, P. J. (1982). Matching and mismatching: The effect of own limit, other’s toughness, & time pressure on concession rate in negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 876–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Svenson, O., & Edland, A. (1989). Changes of preferences under time pressure: Choices and judgments. In H. Montgomery & O. Svenson (Eds.), Process and structure in human decision making (pp. 225–236 ). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  22. Thompson, L. L., & Hastie, R. (1990). Social perception in negotiation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 47, 98–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Touval, S., & Zartman, I. W. (1985). International mediation in theory and practice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  24. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Walton, R., & McKersie, R. (1965). A behavioral theory of labor negotiations: An analysis of a social interaction system. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  26. Wright, P. (1974). The harassed decision maker: Time pressures, distractions, & the use of evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wright, P., & Weitz, B. (1977). Time horizon effects on product evaluation strategies. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 555–561.Google Scholar
  28. Yukl, G. A. (1974). Effects of situational variables and opponent concessions on a bargainer’s perception, aspirations, & concessions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yukl, G. A., Malone, M. P., Hayslip, B., & Pamin, T. A. (1976). The effects of time pressure and issue settlement order on integrative bargaining. Sociometry, 39, 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Carnevale
    • 1
  • Kathleen M. O’Connor
    • 1
  • Christopher McCusker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations