Immunology pp 157-171 | Cite as

Requirement for Macrophages in Primary and Secondary Humoral Responses

  • Carl W. Pierce

Abstract

The involvement of macrophages in the initiation and regulation of humoral and cellular immune responses and the functions of macrophages as nonspecific effector cells of the immune system have become better understood during the past 20 years. This began with the demonstration that antigens localized and were retained in lymphoid tissues in areas rich in macrophages and dendritic cells. Further, evidence was presented that macrophages, after ingestion and degradation of antigen, presented antigenic fragments which were highly immunogenic and critical for initiation of immune responses by lymphocytes. Later, several investigators demonstrated that antigen associated with macrophages was the important immunogen both in vivo and in vitro. The development of tissue culture systems capable of supporting development of both antibody and cellular immune responses and procedures to separate macrophages from complex cell mixtures has permitted more detailed and definitive investigations of functions of macrophages in immune responses.

Keywords

Antibody Response Spleen Cell Lymphoid Cell Immune Response Gene Phoid Cell 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl W. Pierce
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, and Department of Pathology and of Microbiology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

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