Bread — the product

  • Stanley P. Cauvain

Abstract

Bread in its many forms is one of the most staple foods consumed by humanity. Traditionally bread is based on flour derived from the cereal wheat. Many other types of cereals, pulses and even legumes can be milled to give a ‘flour’ but the ability of the proteins present in wheat to transform a gruel of flour and water into a glutinous mass which becomes bread is currently limited to wheat and a few other commonly used cereal seeds. Genetic manipulation may yet combine the special protein characters of wheat with other more conveniently grown and processable seeds, e.g. no crease or a more rounded shape, but today we are still dealing with a cereal crop largely unchanged, in the genetic sense, from the time that humanity discovered its ability to make a special food many thousands of years ago.

Keywords

Fermented Product Texture Profile Analysis Eating Quality Bread Crumb Bake Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AACC (1995a) Method 74–09, Bread firmness by Universal Testing Machine, in Approved Methods of the MCC, 9th edn, Vol. II, American Association of Cereal Chemists.Google Scholar
  2. AACC (1995b) Method 74–10, Staleness of bread, Compression test with Baker Compressimeter, in Approved Methods of the AACC, 9th edn, Vol. II, American Association of Cereal Chemists.Google Scholar
  3. Amerine, M.A., Pangbom, R.M. and Roessler, E.B. (1965) Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. (1995) Crust colour assessment of bakery products. ALB Technical Bulletin XVIII, Issue 3, March.Google Scholar
  5. Bourne, M.C. (1978) Texture profile analysis. Fd. Technol., 32, July, 62–6, 72.Google Scholar
  6. Cauvain, S.P., Chamberlain, N., Collins, T.H. and Davies, J.A. (1983) The distribution of dietary fibre and baking quality among mill fractions of CBP flour. FMBRA Report No. 105, July, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  7. Cauvain, S.P. and Mitchell, T.J. (1986) Effects of gluten and fungal alpha-amylase on CBP bread crumb properties. FMBRA Report No. 134, December, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  8. Collins, T.H. (1978) The French baguette and pain Parisien. FMBRA Bulletin No. 3, June, pp. 107–16.Google Scholar
  9. Cornford, S.J. (1969) Volume and crumb firmness measurements in bread and cake. FMBRA Report No. 25, May, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  10. Eves, A. and Kilcast, D. (1988) Assessing food texture. Food Processing, 57, 23–4.Google Scholar
  11. Jian, W.J. and Coles, G.D. (1993) Image processing methods for determining bread texture, in Image and Vision Computing NZ ‘83 (eds C. Bowman, R. Clist, O. Olsson and M. Rygol ), Industrial Research Ltd, New Zealand, pp. 125–32.Google Scholar
  12. Kulp, K. (1991) Breads and yeast-leavened bakery foods, in Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology (eds K.J. Lorenz and K. Kulp ), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 639–82.Google Scholar
  13. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1996) Household Consumption and Expenditure 1995, Annual Report of the National Food Survey Committee, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  14. Munsell, A.H. (undated) Munsell System of Colour Notation,Macbeth, Baltimore, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Ranhotra, G.S. (1991) Nutritional quality of cereals and cereal-based foods, in Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology (eds K.L. Lorenz and K. Kulp ), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 845–62.Google Scholar
  16. Rogers, D.E., Day, D.D. and Olewnik, M.C. (1995) Development of an objective crumb-grain measurement. Cereal Foods World, 40 (7), 498–501.Google Scholar
  17. Stetser, C.S. (1993) Sensory evaluation, in Advances in Breadmaking Technology (eds B.J. Kamel and C.E. Stauffer ), Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  18. Stone, H. and Sidel, J.L. (1985) Sensory Evaluation Practices, Academic Press, Orlando, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Szczesniak, A.S. (1963a) Classification of textural characteristics. Journal of Food Science, 28, 385–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Szczesniak, A.S. (1963b) Objective measurement of food texture. Journal of Food Science, 28, 410–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Szczesniak, A.S. (1972) Instrumental methods of texture measurement. Food Technology, 26, 63.Google Scholar
  22. UK National Food Survey (1996).Google Scholar
  23. Zohary, D. (1969) The progenitors of wheat and barley in relation to domestication and agricultural dispersion on the Old World, in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (eds P.J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby ), Duckworth, London, pp. 47–66.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley P. Cauvain

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations