Abstract

The growing list of useful drugs and chemicals developed and released by the industry has been paralleled by an increased awareness of their potential for acute and chronic adverse renal reactions. Major advances in the understanding of how these drugs and environmental chemicals produce renal cell injury may be increasingly applicable to non-drug-related renal disease.

Keywords

Renal Artery Stenosis Acute Interstitial Nephritis Polyaspartic Acid Analgesic Nephropathy Renal Papillary Necrosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wedeen RP: Occupational renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 3: 241–257, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Houghton DC, Lee D, Gilbert DN, Bennett WM: Chronic gentamicin nephrotoxicity, continued tubular injury with preserved glomerular filtration function. Am J Pathol 123: 183–194, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dentino M, Luft FC, Yum MN, Williams SD, Einhorn LH: Long-term effects of cis-diamminedichloride platinum (CDDP) on renal function and structure in man. Cancer 41: 1274–1281, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Elzinga L, Rosen S, Bennett WM: Dissociation of glomerular filtration rate from tubulointerstitial fibrosis in experimental chronic cyclosporine nephropathy: role of sodium intake. J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 214–221, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gilbert DN, Houghton DC, Bennett WM, Plamp CE, Reger K, Porter GA: Reversibility of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats: recovery during continued drug administration. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 160: 99–103, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abramowsky CR, Swinehart GL: The nephropathy of cystic fibrosis: a human model of chronic nephrotoxicity. Hum Pathol 13: 934–939, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rush GF, Smith JH, Newton JF, Hook JB: Chemically induced nephrotoxicity: role of metabolic activation. CRC Crit Rev Toxicol 13: 99–160, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clejan S, Bittman R: Rates of amphotericin B and filipin association with sterols. A study of changes in sterol structure and phospholipid composition of vesicles. J Biol Chem 260: 2884–2889, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jackson NM, Hsu C, Visscher GE, Venkatachalam MA, Humes HD: Alterations in renal structure and function in a rat model of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 242: 749–756, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sastrasinh M, Knauss TC, Weinberg JM, Humes HD: Identification of the aminoglycoside receptor of renal brush border membranes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 222: 350–358, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weinberg JM, Hunt D, Humes HD: Distribution of gentamicin among subcellular fractions from rat renal cortex. Biochem Pharmacol 34: 1779–1787, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mela-Riker LM, Widener LL, Houghton DC, Bennett WM: Renal mitochondrial integrity during continuous gentamicin treatment. Biochem Pharmacol 35: 979–984, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bennett WM, Mela-Riker L, Houghton DC, Gilbert DN, Buss WC: Microsomal protein synthesis inhibition: an early manifestation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Am J Physiol 24: F265 - F269, 1988.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gilbert D, Wood C, Kohlhepp S, Kohnen P, Houghton DC, Finkbeiner H, Lindsley J, Bennett WM: Polyaspartic acid prevents experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. J Infect Dis 159: 945–953, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tune BM, Fravert D: Mechanisms of cephalosporin nephrotoxicity: a comparison of cephaloridine and cephaloglycin. Kidney Int 18: 591–600, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kotsonis FN, Klassen CD: Toxicity and distribution of cadmium administered to rats at sublethal doses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 41: 667–680, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weinberg JM, Harding PG, Humes HG: Alterations in renal cortex cation homeostasis during mercuric chloride and gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Exp Mol Pathol 39: 43–60, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mason RP: Free radical intermediates in the metabolism of toxic chemicals. In: Free Radicals in Biology, vol 5. Academic Press, New York, pp 161–170, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zenser TV, Davis BB: Enzyme systems involved in the formation of reactive metabolites in the renal medulla: co-oxidation via prostaglandin H synthetase. Fund Appl Toxicol 4: 922–929, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mohandas J, Duggin GG, Horvath JS, Tiller DJ: Metabolic oxidation of acetaminophen mediated by cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in rabbit kidney. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 61: 25 2259, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuo CH, Maita K, Sleight SD, Hook JB: Lipid peroxidation: a possible mechanism of cephaloridine-induced nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 67: 78–88, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fowler BA, Brooks RE: Effects of the herbicide paraquat on the ultrastructure of mouse kidney. Am J Pathol 63: 505–520, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Humes HD, Weinberg JM: Alterations in renal tubular cell metabolism in acute renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 9: 290–305, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Just M, Erdmann G, Habermann E: The renal handling of polybasic drugs. I. Gentamicin and aprotinin in intact ani-Google Scholar
  25. mals. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 300:57–66, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    De Broe ME, Paulus GJ, Verpooten GA, Roels F, Buyssens N, Wedeen R, Van Hoff F, Tulkens PM: Early effects of gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin on the human kidney. Kidney Int 25: 643–652, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Lullmann H, Lullmann-Rauch R, Wassermann O: Drug-induced phospholipidosis. CRC Crit Rev Toxicol 4: 185–218, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Kaloyanides GJ: Aminoglycoside-induced functional and biochemical defects in the renal cortex. Fund Appl Toxicol 4: 930–943, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Kleinknicht D, Landais P, Goldfarb B: Drug associated acute renal failure: a prospective multicenter report. Proc EDTAERA 22: 1002, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Humes HD, Weinberg JM, Knauss TC: Clinical and pathophysiologic aspects of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 2: 5–29, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Whelton A: Therapeutic initiatives for the avoidance of aminoglycoside toxicity. J Clin Pharmacol 25: 67–81, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Burdmann EA, Andoh TF, Lindsley J, Russell J, Bennett WM, Porter GA: Urinary enzymes as biomarkers of renal injury in experimental nephrotoxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. Ren Fail 16: 161–168, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Houghton DC, Hartnett MN, Campbell-Boswell M, Porter GA, Bennett WM: A light and electron microscopic analysis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Am J Pathol 82: 589–612, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Bennett WM, Gilbert DN, Houghton D, Porter GA: Gentamicin nephrotoxicity in man: morphologic and pharmacologic features. West J Med 126: 65–68, 1977.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Bennett WM: Mechanisms of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 16: 1–6, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Hruban Z, Slessers A, Hopkins E: Drug-induced and naturally occurring myeloid bodies. Lab Invest 27: 62–70, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Mandal A, Bennett WM: Transmission electron microscopy of urinary sediment in the assessment of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity in the rat. Nephron 49: 45–53, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Bennett WM, Plamp CE, Gilbert DN, Parker RA, Porter GA: The influence of dosage regime on experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity: dissociation of peak serum levels from renal failure. J Infect Dis 140: 576–580, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Powell SH, Thompson WL, Luthe MA, Stern RC, Grossniklaus DA, Bloxham DD, Groden DL, Jacobs MR, DiScenna AO, Cash HA, Klinger JD: Once-daily vs. continuous aminoglycoside dosing: efficacy and toxicity in animal and clinical studies of gentamicin, netilmicin, and tobramicin. J Infect Dis 147: 918–932, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Gilbert DN: Once daily aminoglycoside dosing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36: 121–124, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Swan SK, Gilbert DN, Kohlhepp SJ, Kohnen PW, Bennett WM: Pharmacologic limits of the protective effect of polyaspartic acid on experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37: 347–348, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    English J, Gilbert DN, Kohlhepp SJ, Kohnen PW, Mayor G, Houghton DC, Bennett WM: Attenuation of experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by ticarcillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 27: 897–902, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Appel GB, Kunis CL: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. In: RS Cottan, ed, Tubulo-interstitial Nephropathies. Churchill-Livingstone, New York, pp 151–160, 1982.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Fillastre JP, Kleinknecht D: Acute renal failure associated with cephalosporin therapy. Am Heart J 89: 809–810, 1975.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Glauser MP, Neftel KA: Toxicology and pharmacologic considerations in the choice of empiric parenteral antibiotics. Am J Med 801: 64–69, 1986.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Tune BM: Relationship between the transport and toxicity of cephalosporins in the kidney. J Infect Dis 132: 189–194, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Tune BM: Nephrotoxicity of cephalosporin antibiotics: mechanisms and modifying factors. In: GA Porter, ed, Nephrotoxic Mechanisms of Drugs and Environmental Toxins. Plenum Medical, New York, pp 151–164, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Abraham EP: Cephalosporins, 1945–1986. Drugs 34: 1–14, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Birnbaum J, Kahan FA, Kropp H, MacDonald JS: Carbopenems, a new class of Beta-lactose antibiotics. Am J Med 78: 3–21, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Appel GB, Gwen DB, Levine L, Cooper GL: Vancomycin and the kidney. Am J Kidney Dis 8: 75–80, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Edwards OM, Huskisson EC, Taylor R: Azotemia aggravated by tetracycline. Br Med J 1: 26–27, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Forrest JN, Cox M, Hong C, Morrison G, Bia M, Singer I: Superiority of demeclocycline over lithium in the treatment of chronic pyrelume of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. N Engl J Med 298: 173–177, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Butler WT, Bennett JE, Ailing DW: Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B: early and late effects in 81 patients. Ann Intern Med 61: 175–178, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Douglas JB, Healy JK: Nephrotoxicity effects of amphotericin B, including renal tubular acidosis. Am J Med 46: 154162, 1969.Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Gerkens JF, Heidemann HT, Jaeleson EK, Branch AA: Effect of aminophylline on amphotericin B nephrotoxicity in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 224: 609–613, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Branch RA: Prevention of amphotericin B-induced renal impairment: a review of the use of sodium supplementation. Arch Intern Med 148: 2389–2394, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Sawyer MH, Webb DE, Balow JE, Straus SE: Acyclovirinduced renal failure. Am J Med 84: 1067–1071, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Anderson R, Boedicker M, Ma M, Goldstein EJ: Adverse reactions associated with pentamidine isothionate in AIDS patients: recommendations for monitoring therapy. Drug Intell Clin Pharmacol 20: 862–868, 1986.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Bennett WM, Porter GA: Overview of clinical nephrotoxicity. In: JB Hook, RS Goldstein, eds, Toxicology of the Kidney. Raven Press, New York, pp 61–97, 1993.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Swan SK, Bennett WM: Nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In: M Lazarus, B Brenner, eds, Acute Renal Failure. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 357–392, 1993.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Bennett WM, Elzinga LW, Porter GA: Tubulointerstitial disease and toxic nephropathy. In: B Brenner, F Rector, eds, The Kidney, 4th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 14301496, 1991.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Berkseth RO, Kjellstrand CM: Radiologic contrast-induced nephropathy. Med Clin North Am 68: 351–370, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    D’Elia JA, Gleason RE, Alday M, Malarick C, Godley K, Warram J, Kaldany A, Weinranch A: Nephrotoxicity from angiographic contrast media. Am J Med 72: 719–725, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Cochran ST, Wong WS, Roe DJ: Predicting angiographyinduced acute renal function impairment: clinical risk model. AJR 141: 1027–1033, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Kleinknecht D, Landais P, Goldfarb B: Pathophysiology and clinical aspects of drug-induced tubular necrosis in man. Contr Nephrol 55: 145–158, 1987.Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Katzberg RW, Schulman G, Meggs LG, Caldicott WJ, Damiano MM, Hollenberg NK: Mechanism of renal response to contrast medium in dogs. Invest Radiol 18: 74–80, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Katzberg RW, Pabico RC, Morris TW, Hayakawa K, McKenna BA, Panner BJ, Ventura JA, Fischer HW: Effects of contrast media on renal function and subcellular morphology in the dog. Invest Radio! 21: 64–70, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66a.
    Rudrick MR, Berns JS, Cohen RM: Contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 5: 127–133, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Schwab SJ, Hlatley MA, Pieper KS, Davidson CJ, Morris KG, Skelton TN, Bashore TM: Contrast nephrotoxicity: a randomized controlled trial of a nonionic and an ionic radiographic contrast agent. N Engl J Med 320: 149–153, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    Madias NE, Harrington JT: Platinum nephrotoxicity. Am J Med 65: 307–314, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Harmon WE, Cohen JH, Schneeberger EE, Grupe WE: Chronic renal failure in children treated wtih methyl CCNU. N Engl J Med 300:1200–1203, 1979. Nichols WC, Moertel CG: Nephrotoxicity of methyl CCNU. N Engl J Med 301: 1181, 1979.Google Scholar
  72. 51.
    Fox RM: Methotrexate nephrotoxicity. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 5: 43–45, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 52.
    Jacobs SA, Stoller RG, Chabner BA, Johns DG: Hydroxymethotrexate as a urinary metabolite in human subjects and rhesus monkeys receiving high dose methotrexate. J Clin Invest 57: 534–538, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 53.
    Safirstein R, Winston J, Goldstein M, Moel D, Dikman S, Guttenplan J: Cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 8: 356–367, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 54.
    Canetta R, Rozencwerg M, Carter SK: Carboplatin: the clinical spectrum to date. Cancer Treat Rep (Suppl A): 125–136, 1985.Google Scholar
  76. 55.
    Smith IE, Harland SJ, Robinson BA, Evans BD, Goodhart LC, Calvert AH, Yarnold J, Glees JP, Baker J, Ford HT: Carboplatin: a very active new cisplatin analog in treatment of small cell lung cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 69: 43–46, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 56.
    Schilsky RL, Anderson T: Hypomagnesemia and renal magnesium wasting in patients receiving cisplatin. Ann Intern Med 90: 929–931, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 57.
    Ellis ME, Weiss RB, Kuperminc M: Nephrotoxicity of iomustine: a case report and literature review. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 15: 174–175, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 58.
    Schacht RG, Feiner HD, Gallo GR, Lieberman A, Baldwin DS: Nephrotoxicity of nitrosoureas. Cancer 48: 1328–1334, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 59.
    Schein PS, O’Connell MJ, Blom J, Hubbard S, Magrath IT, Bergevin P, Wiernik PH, Ziegler JL, DeVita VT: Clinical antitumor activity and toxicity of streptozotocin (NSC 85998). Cancer 34: 993–1000, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 60.
    Bertino JR, Condos S, Horvath C, Kalghatgi K, Pedersen IT: Immobilized carboxypeptidase G, in methotrexate removal. Cancer Res 38: 1936–1941, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 61.
    Kennedy BJ: Metabolic and toxic effects of mithramycin during tumor therapy. Am J Med 49: 494–503, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 62.
    Giroux L, Bettez P, Giroux L: Mitomycin-C nephrotoxicity: a clinico-pathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Kidney Dis 6: 2839, 1985.Google Scholar
  84. 63.
    Weening JJ, Rennke HG: Glomerular permeability and polyanion in adriamycin nephrosis in the rat. Kidney Int 24: 152–159, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 64.
    Bennett WM: Clinical aspects of cyclosporine in nephrotoxicity. In: M Hatano, et al., eds, Nephrology. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, pp 564–575, 1991.Google Scholar
  86. 65.
    First MR, Schroeder TJ, Weiskittel P, Moscini L, Benigni A, Amuchastegui CS, Gasparini F, Remuzzi G: Concomitant administration of cyclosporine and ketoconazole in renal transplant recipients. Lancet 2: 1198–1201, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 66.
    Greenberg A, Egel JW, Thompson ME, Hardesty RL, Griffith BP, Bahnson HT, Bernstein RL, Hastillo A, Hess Ml, Puschett JB: Early and late forms of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: studies in cardiac transplant patients. Am J Kidney Dis 9: 12–22, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 67.
    Conte G, Dal Canton A, Sabbatini M, et al.: Acute cyclosporine renal dysfunction reversed by dopamine infusion in healthy subjects. Kidney Int 36: 1086–1092, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 68.
    Perico N, Ruggenenti P, Gaspari P, Moscini L, Benigni A, Amuchastequi CS, Gasparini F, Remuzzi G: Daily renal hypoperfusion induced by cyclosporine in patients with renal transplantation. Transplantation 54: 56–60, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Curtis JJ, Luke RG, Dubovsky E, Diethelm AG, Whelchel JD, Jones P: Cyclosporine in therapeutic doses increases renal allograft vascular resistance. Lancet 2: 477–479, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Neild GH, Taube DH, Hartley RB, Bignardi L, Cameron JS, Williams DG, Ogg CS, Rudge CJ: Morphological differentiation between rejection and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in renal allografts. J Clin Pathol 39: 152–159, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Myers BD: Cyclosporine nephrotoxicty. Kidney Int 30: 964974, 1986.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Myers BD, Ross J, Newton L, Luetscher J, Perlroth M: Cyclosporine-associated chronic nephropathy. N Engl J Med 311: 699–705, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Wheatley HC, Daltzman M, Williams JW, et al.: Long-term effects of cyclosporine on renal function in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 43: 641–647, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Palestine AG, Austin HA, Balow JE, et al.: Renal histopathologic alterations in patients treated with cyclosporine for uveitis. N Engl J Med 314: 1293–1298, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Myers BD, Sibley R, Newton L, et al.: The long-term course of cyclosporine-associated chronic nephropathy. Kidney Int 33: 590–600, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Mihatsch MJ, Thiel G, Basler V, Ruffel B, Landmann J, Von Overbeck J, Zollinger HV: Morphologic patterns in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 17 (Suppl 1): 101–116, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Shulman H, Striker G, Deeg HJ, Kennedy M, Storb R, Thomas ED: Nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A after allogeneic marrow transplantation: glomerular thromboses and tubular injury. N Engl J Med 305: 1392–1395, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Van Buren D, Van Buren CT, Flechner SM, Maddox AM, Verani R, Kahan BD: De novo hemolytic uremic syndrome in renal transplant recipients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine. Surgery 98: 54–62, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Grace AA, Barradas MA, Midhailidis DP, Jeremy JY, Moorhead JF, Sueny P, Dandona P: Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation. Kidney Int 32: 889–895, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Bennett WM, Porter GA: Cyclosporine-associated hypertension. Am J Med 85: 131–133, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Bellet M, Cabrol C, Sassano P, Leger P, Corvol P, Menard J: Systemic hypertension after cardiac transplantation: effect of cyclosporine on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Am J Cardiol 56: 927–931, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Curtis JJ, Luke RG, Jones P, Diethelm AG: Hypertension in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients is sodium dependent. Am J Med 85: 134–138, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Xue H, Bukoski R, McCarron DA, Bennett WM: Cyclosporin A induces contraction in isolated rat aorta. Transplantation 43: 715–715, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Whitworth JA, Mills EH, Coghland JP, McDougall JG, Nelson MA, Spence CD, Tresham JJ, Scoggins BA: The hemodynamic effects of cyclosporine in sheep. J Exp Pharmacol Physiol 14: 573–580, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Textor SC, Fornan SJ, Borer W, Carlson J: De novo accelerated hypertension during sequential cyclosporine and prednisone therapy in normotensive bone marrow transplant recipients. Trans Proc 20 (Suppl 3): 480–486, 1988.Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Hiestand PC, Graber M, Hurtenbach U, Herrmann P, Commisuli S, Richardson BP, Eberle MK, Donatsch P, Ryffel B, Borel JF: New cyclosporine derivative SD2 IMM125: in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic effects and toxicologic evaluation. Transplant Proc 25: 691–692, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Burdmann EA, Andoh TF, Rosen S, Lindsley J, Munar M, Elzinga LW, Bennett WM: Experimental nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin G versus cyclosporin A. Kidney Int 45: 684–691, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Henry M, Elkhammas EA, Tesi RJ, Ferguson RM: A randomized prospective trial of 0G-37–325 versus cyclosporine in cadaveric renal transplantation. Am Soc Transplant Phys 12: 125, 1993.Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Andoh TF, Burdmann EA, Lindsley J, Houghton DC, Bennett WM: Enhancement of FK506 nephrotoxicity by sodium depletion in an experimental rat model. Transplantation 57: 483–489, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Pirsch J, the U.S. Multi-center FK506 Liver Study Group: Renal and metabolic effects of liver transplantation: comparison of FK506 to CyA with respect to GFR, hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperkalemia. Am Soc Transplant Phys 12: 153, 1993.Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Randhawa PS, Shapiro R, Jordan ML, Starzl TE, Demetris AJ: The histopathological changes associated with allograft rejection and drug toxicity in renal transplant recipients maintained on FK506. Am J Surg Pathol 17: 60–68, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    DiJoseph JF, Sharma RN, Chang JY: The effect of rapamycin on kidney function in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Transplantation 52: 507–513, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Henrich W: Nephrotoxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. In: R Schrier, C Gottschalk, eds, Diseases of the Kidney. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 1203–1218, 1992.Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    Miller ISM, Bednar MM, McGiff JC: Renal metabolism of sulindac: functional implications. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 281: 449–456, 1984.Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Klassen DK, Stout RL, Spilman PS, Whelton A: Sulindac kinetics and effects on renal function and prostaglandin excretion in renal insufficiency. J Clin Pharmacol 29: 1037–1042, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Ciabattoni G, Cinotti GA, Pierucci A, Simonetti BM, Manzi M, Pagliese F, Barsotti P, Pecci G, Taggi F, Patrono C: Effects of sulindac and ibuprofen in patients with chronic glomerular disease. N Engl J Med 310: 279–283, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Quintero E, Gines P, Arroyo V, Rimola A, Camps J, Gaya J, Guerara A, Rodamilans M, Rodes J: Sulindac reduces the urinary excretion of prostaglandins and impairs renal function in cirrhosis with ascites. Nephron 42: 298–303, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Shah GM, Muhalwas KK, Winer RL: Renal papillary necrosis due to ibuprofen. Arthritis Rheum 24: 1208–1210, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Adams DH, Michael J, Bacon PA, Howie AJ, McConkey B, Adu D: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and renal failure. Lancet 1: 57–60, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Williams RC: Changes in lymphocyte cell surface markers in human disease states. Clin Immunol Rev 1: 409–469, 1981 1982.Google Scholar
  122. 121.
    Henann NE, Morales JR: Suprofen-induced acute renal failure. Drug Intel(Clin Pharmacol 20: 860–862, 1986.Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Sipila R, Skrifvars BO, Tornroth T: Reversible non-oliguric impairment of renal function during azapropazone treatment. Scand J Rheumatol 15: 23–26, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Schneider PD: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acute cortical necrosis. Ann Intern Med 105: 303–304, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Dubach UC: Analgetika-Nephropathie in der Schweiz. Z Urol Nephrol 82: 143–144, 1989.Google Scholar
  126. 125.
    Elseviers MM, DeBroe, ME: Is analgesic nephropathy still a problem in Belgium? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2: 143–149, 1988.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Pommer W, Glaeske G, Molzahn M: The analgesic problem in the Federal Republic of Germany: analgesic consumption, 744 Therapy of Renal Diseases & Related Disorders frequency of analgesic nephropathy and regional differences. Clin Nephrol 26: 273–278, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. U.S. Renal Data System: USRDS 1993 Annual Data Report. NIDDK, Bethesda, MD, March 1993.Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    IPCS/CEC Environmental Health Criteria 119. Principles and Methods for the Assessment of Nephrotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1991.Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Prescott LF: Analgesic nephropathy: a reassessment of the role of phenacetin and other analgesics. Drugs 23: 75–149, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Elseviers MM, DeBroe MM: Epidemiology of analgesic nephropathy. J Nephrol 5: 94–98, 1992.Google Scholar
  132. 131.
    Murray TG, Stolley PD, Anthony JC, Schinnar R, HeplerSmith E, Jeffreys JL: Epidemiologic study of regular analgesic use and end-stage renal disease. Arch Intern Med 143: 1687–1693, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    McCredie M, Stewart JH, Nlahony JF: Is phenacetin responsible for analgesic nephropathy in New South Wales? Clin Nephrol 17: 134–140, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Sandler DP, Smith JC, Weinberg CR, Buckalew VM, Dennis VW, Blythe WB, Burgess WP: Analgesic use and chronic renal disease. N Engl J Med 320: 1238–1243, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Pommer W, Bronder E, Greiser E, Helmert U, Jesdinsky HJ, Klimpel A, Borner K, Molzahn M: Regular analgesic intake and the risk of end-stage renal failure. Am J Nephrol 9: 403412, 1989.Google Scholar
  136. 135.
    Morlans M, Laporte JR, Vidal X, Cabeza D, Stolley PH: End-stage renal disease and non-narcotic analgesics: a case-control study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 30: 717–723, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Dubach UC, Rosner B, Pfister E: Epidemiologic study of abuse of analgesics containing phenacetin. Renal morbidity and mortality (1968–1979). N Engl J Med 308: 357–362, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Dubach UC, Rosner B, Sturmer T: An epidemiologic study of abuse of analgesic drugs. Effects of phenacetin and salicylate on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity (1968–1987). N Engl J Med 324: 155–160, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Elseviers MM, DeBroe ME: Wurde das Problem der Analgetika-Nephropathie durch die Entfernung des Penacetins aus analgetischen Mischpraparaten gelost? Mitt Klin Nephrol 16: 187–193, 1987.Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Kincaid-Smith P: Analgesic nephropathy in Australia. Contrib Nephrol 16: 57–64, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Nanra RS, Disney APS, Excell L: Changes in pattern of renal failure in analgesic nephropathy following restriction of analgesic sales in Australia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 708–709, 1992.Google Scholar
  142. 141.
    Disney APS, Scheil AGR, Roy P: Fourteenth Report of the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZ DATA). October 1991.Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    Bengtsson U: Analgetika-Nephropathis–Langfristige Erfahrungen aus Schweden. Z Urol Nephrol 82: 121–125, 1989.Google Scholar
  144. 143.
    Wessling A: Over-the-counter sales of drugs in Sweden 19761983. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33: 1–6, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    DeBroe ME, Elseviers MM: Analgesic nephropathy-still a problem? Nephron 64: 505–513, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Elseviers MM, Bosteels V, Cambier P, De Paepe M, Godon JP, Lins R, Lornoy W, Matthys E, Moeremans C, Roose R, Theelen B, Van Caesbroeck D, Verbanck J, De Broe ME: Diagnostic criteria of analgesic nephropathy in patients with end-stage renal failure: results of the Belgian study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 479–486, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Buckalew VM, Schey HM: Analgesic nephropathy: a significant cause of morbidity in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 7: 164–168, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Wing AJ, Brunner FP, Geerlings W: Contribution of toxic nephropathies to end-stage renal failure in Europe: a report from the EDTA-ERA Registry. Toxicol Lett 46: 281–292, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Seedat YK, Naicker S, Rawat R, Parsoo I: Racial differences in the causes of end-stage renal failure in Natal. S Afr Med J 65: 956–958, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Segasothy M, Suleiman AB, Puvaneswary M, Rohana A: Paracetamol: a cause for analgesic nephropathy and end-stage renal disease. Nephron 50: 50–54, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    McAnally JF, Winchester JF, Schreiner GE: Analgesic nephropathy. An uncommon cause of end-stage renal disease. Arch Intern Med 143: 1897–1899, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Gonwa TA, Hamilton RW, Buckalew VM: Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease in northwestern North Carolina. Importance of analgesic associated nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 141: 462–465, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Wedeen RP: Poison in the Pot. Southern Illinois Press, Carbondale, IL, 1985.Google Scholar
  154. 153.
    Lancereaux E: Nephrite et arthrite saturnines: coincidence de ces affections: Parallele avec la nephrite el l’arthrite goutteuses. Arch Gen Med Par 6: 641–644, 1881.Google Scholar
  155. 154.
    Bennett WM: Lead nephropathy. Kidney Int 28: 212–220, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Klein M, Namer R, Harpur E, Corbin R: Earthenware containers as a source of fatal lead poisoning. N Engl J Med 283: 669–672, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Wedeen RP, Mallik DK, Batumen V: Detection and treatment of occupational lead nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 139: 53–57, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Batuman V, Landy E, Maesaka JK, Wedeen RP: Contribution of lead to hypertension with renal impairment. N Engl J Med 309: 17–21, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Batuman V, Maesaka JK, Haddad B, Tepper E, Landy E, Wedeen RP: The role of lead in gout nephropathy. N Engl J Med 304: 520–523, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Mistry P, Lucier GW, Fowler BA: High-affinity lead-binding proteins in rat kidney cytosol mediate cell-free nuclear translocation of lead. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 232: 462–469, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Chisolm JJ, Baltrop D: Recognition and management of children with increased lead absorption. Arch Dis Child 54: 249262, 1979.Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    Craswell PW, Price J, Boyle PD, Heazlewood VJ, Baddeley H, Lloyd HM, Thomas BJ, Thomas BW: Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning. Kidney Int 26: 319–323, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Harlan WR, Landis JR, Schmouder RL: Blood lead and blood pressure relationship in the adolescent and adult U.S. population. JAMA 253: 530–534, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    McAllister RG, Michelakis AM, Sanstead HH: Plasma renin activity in chronic plumbism. Arch Intern Med 127: 919–923, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 164.
    Suzuki CA, Cherian MG: Renal toxicity of cadmiummetallothionein and enzymuria in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 240: 314–314, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Roels HA, Lauwerys R, Buchet JP, Bernard A, Chettle DR, Harvey TC, Al-Haddad IK: In vivo measurement of liver and kidney cadmium in workers exposed to this metal: its significance with respect to cadmium in blood and urine. Environ Res 26: 217–240, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Friberg L: Cadmium and the kidney. Environ Health Perspect 54: 1–11, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Nogawa K: Biologic indicators of cadmium nephrotoxicity in persons with low-level cadmium exposure. Environ Health Perspect 54: 163–169, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Lauwerys R, DeWals P: Environmental pollution by cadmium and mortality from renal diseases. Lancet 1: 383, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Hricik DE, Browning PJ, Kopelman R, Goorno WE, Madias NE, Dzau VJ: Captopril-induced functional renal insufficiency in patients with bilateral renal artery stenoses or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney. N Engl J Med 308: 373376, 1983.Google Scholar
  171. 170.
    Coulie P, de Plaen JF, van Ypersele de Strihou C: Captoprilinduced acute reversible renal failure. Nephron 35: 108–111, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Curtis JJ, Luke RG, Whelchel JD, Diethelm AG, Jones P, Dustan HP: Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme in renal transplant recipients with hypertension. N Engl J Med 308: 377–381, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 172.
    Brown AR, Williams PF: Irreversible renal transpant failure after enalapril therapy. Br Med J 292: 732, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 173.
    Scanu P, de Ligny H, Ryckelynck JP: Reversible acute renal insufficiency with combination of enalapril and diuretics in a patient with a single renal artery stenosis. Nephron 45: 32 1322, 1987.Google Scholar
  175. 174.
    Cunningham EE, Zielezny MA, Venuta RC: Heroin-associated nephropathy—a nationwide problem. JAMA 250: 2935–2936, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Sreepada TK, Nicastri AD, Friedman EA: Renal consequences of narcotic abuse. Adv Nephrol 7: 261–290, 1978.Google Scholar
  177. 176.
    Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M, Lundberg GD, McCormick R, Pincus IJ, Tatter D, Haverback BJ: Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. N Engl J Med 283: 1003–1011, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Stein HB, Patterson AC, Offer RC, Atkins CJ, Teufel A, Robinson HS: Adverse effects of D-penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 92: 24–29, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Bacon PA, Tribe CR, Mackenzie JC, Verrier-Jones J, Cumming RH, Amer B: Penicillamine nephropathy in rheumatoid arthritis—a clinical, pathological and immunological study. Q J Med 55: 661–684, 1976.Google Scholar
  180. 179.
    Lachmann PJ: Nephrotic syndrome from penicillamine. Postgrad Med J Suppl 23: 23–27, 1968.Google Scholar
  181. 180.
    Ntoso KA, Tomaszewski JE, Jimenez SA, Neilson EG: Penicillamine-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis: successful treatment of two patients and a review of the literature. Am J Kidney Dis 5: 159–163, 1986.Google Scholar
  182. 181.
    Rehan A, Johnson K: IgM nephropathy associated wtih penicillamine. Am J Nephrol 6: 71–74, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 182.
    Katz WA, Blodgett RC, Pietrusko RG: Proteinuria in gold-treated rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 101: 176–179, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 183.
    Francis KL, Jenis EH, Jensen GE, Calcagno PL: Gold-associated nephropathy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108: 234238, 1984.Google Scholar
  185. 184.
    Blocka KL, Paulus HE, Furst DE: Clinical pharmacokinetics of oral and injectable gold compounds. Clin Pharmacol 11: 133–143, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 185.
    Ueda S, Wakashin M, Wakashin Y, Yoshida H, Lesato K, Mori T, Mori Y, Akikusa B, Okuda K: Experimental gold nephropathy in guinea pigs. Detection of autoantibodies to renal tubular antigens. Kidney Int 29: 539–548, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Landrigan PJ: Occupational and community exposures to toxic metals: lead, cadmium mercury and arsenic. West J Med 137: 531–539, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Iesato K, Wakashin M, Wakashin Y, Tojo S: Renal tubular dysfunction in Minimata disease. Ann Intern Med 86: 73 1737, 1977.Google Scholar
  189. 188.
    Thun MJ, Baker DB, Steenland K, Smith AB, Halperin W, Berl T: Renal toxicity in uranium mill workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 11: 83–90, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Gerhardt RE, Crecelius EA, Hudson JB: Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning. Arch Intern Med 140: 211–213, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 190.
    Finn R, Fennerty RG, Ahmad R: Hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 14: 173–175, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 191.
    Viau C, Bernard A, Lauwerys R, Buchet JP, Quaeghebeur L, Cornu ME, Phillips SC, Mutti A, Lucertini S, Franchini I: A cross-sectional survey of kidney function in refinery employees. Am J Ind Med 11: 177–187, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 192.
    Lauwerys R, Bernard A, Viau C, Buchet JP: Kidney disorders and hematoxicity from organic solvent exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health II (suppl): 83–90, 1985.Google Scholar
  194. 193.
    Churchill DN, Fine A, Gault MH: Association between hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis. An appraisal of the evidence. Nephron 33: 169–172, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 194.
    Ravnskov U, Forsberg B, Skerfving S: Glomerulonephritis and exposure to organic solvents. Acta Med Scand 205: 575579, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • William M. Bennett
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Hypertension, and Clinical PharmacologyOregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations