Rehabilitation pp 201-228 | Cite as

Rehabilitation Assessment and Planning for Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities

  • Sue R. Beers
Chapter
Part of the Human Brain Function book series (HBFA)

Abstract

The concept of learning disability, developed in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, received widespread recognition with the passage of legislation mandating identification of children having such disability in the 1970s. This term generally describes the problems of children who are of at least average intelligence but demonstrate impaired perception, cognition, gross or fine motor skill, or language development and who function one to several years below grade level in at least one academic subject. Learning disability (LD) is found in 3% to 4% of the population, although some estimates are substantially higher (Hynd, Obrzut, Hayes, & Becker, 1986). Until recently it was generally believed that learning disabilities would be outgrown. Young adults with learning disabilities, however, are the single fastest-growing group of persons with disabilities on the college campus today (Notebook, 1996). In fact, recent research has found that individuals outside the formal educational setting continue to manifest learning disabilities that have lifelong ramifications for vocational success and psychological adjustment.

Keywords

Reading Comprehension Learn Disability Vocational Rehabilitation Learn Disability Test Manual 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adelman, H. S., Taylor, L. (1985). The future of the LD field: A survey of fundamental concerns.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7, 423–427.Google Scholar
  2. Baron, I. S., Fennell, E. B., Voeller, K. K. S. (1995). Pediatric neuropsychology in the medical setting. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Beers, S. R., Goldstein, G., & Katz, L. J. (1994). Neuropsychological differences between college student with learning disabilities and those with mild head injury.Journal of Learning Disability, 27, 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benton, A. L., & Hamsher, K. deS. (1978).Manual: Multilingual aphasia examination. Iowa City: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  5. Berg, R. A., Franzen, M., & Wedding, D. (1994).Screening for brain impairment. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Boder, E., & Jarrico, S. (1982).The Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  7. Bornstein, R. A. (1986). Normative data on intermanual differences on three tests of motor performance.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 12–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, D. (1982). Rehabilitating the learning disabled adult.American Rehabilitation, 7, 3–11.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, J. I., Bennett, M., & Hanna, G. (1981).Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  10. Chalfant, J. C. (1984).Identifying learning disabled students: Guidelines for decision making. Burlington, VT: Northeast Regional Resource Center.Google Scholar
  11. Connolly, A. J. (1988).KeyMath-Revised: A diagnostic inventory of essential mathematics. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  12. Conoley, J. C., & Kramer, J. J. (1989a). Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Forms E and F. InThe tenth mental measurements yearbook (Vol. 1, pp. 1035–1037 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  13. Conoley, J. C., & Kramer, J. J. (1989b). Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised. In,The tenth mental measurements yearbook (Vol. 2, pp. 897–905 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  14. Conoley, J. C., & Kramer, J. J. (1989c). Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. InThe tenth mental measurements yearbook (Vol. 2, pp. 1759–1765 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cordoni, B. K., O’Donnell, J. P., Ramaniah, N. V., Kurtz, J., & Rosenshein, K. (1981). Wechsler adult intelligence score patterns for learning disabled young adults.Journal of Learning Disabilities 14, 404–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeFilippis, N., & McCampbell, E. (1979).Manual for the Booklet Category Test: Research and clinical form. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  17. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., Ober, B. A. (1987).California Verbal Learning Test: Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  18. Denckla, M. B. (1985). Revised neurological examination for subtle signs.Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 773–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Derogatis, L. R. (1983).Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  20. Goldstein, G. (1990). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment batteries. In G. Goldstein & M. Herson (Eds.),Handbook of psychological assessment ( 2nd ed., pp. 197–227 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  21. Hammill, D. D, & Larsen, S. C. (1996).Test of Written Language ( 3rd ed. ). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  22. Heaton, R. K., & Pendleton, M. G. (1981). Use of neuropsychological tests to predict adult patients’ everyday functioning.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 807–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heaton, R. K., Grant, I., & Matthews, C. G. (1991).Comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  24. Hynd, G. W., Obrzut, J. E., Hayes, F.,Becker, M. T. (1986). Neuropsychology of childhood learning disabilities. In D. Wedding, A. M. Horton, J.Webster (Eds.),The neuropsychology handbook: Behavioral and clinical perspectives (pp. 456–485). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Kane, R. L. (1991). Standardized and flexible batteries in neuropsychology: An assessment update.Neuropsychology Review, 2, 281–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katz, L. J., & Slomka, G. T. (1990). Achievement testing. In G. Goldstein & M. Herson (Eds.),Handbook of psychological assessment ( 2nd ed., pp. 123–147 ). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  27. Kauffman, A. S. (1979).Intelligent testing with the WISC-R. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Levine, M. D. (1987).Developmental variation and learning disorders. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  29. Levine, M. D. (1994).Educational care: A system for understanding and managing learning disorders. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  30. Lezak, M. D. (1995).Neuropsychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. MacGinitie, W. H., & MacGinitie, R. K. (1989).Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests-Third Edition. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  31. Mangrum, C. T., Strichart, S. S. (1988). College and the learning disabled student: Program development implementation and selection. Philadelphia: Grune Stratton.Google Scholar
  32. Markwardt, F. C., Jr. (1989).Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised: Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  33. Matthews, C. G., & Kl0ve, H. (1964).Instruction manual for the Adult Neuropsychological Test Battery. Madison: University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  34. McCue, M. (1994). Neuropsychological diagnostic and functional interview. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  35. McCue, M., & Goldstein, G. (1991). Neuropsychological aspects of learning disability in adults. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.),Neuropsychological validation of learning disability subtypes (pp. 311–329 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  36. McCue, M., Katz, L., & Goldstein, G. A training program in specific learning disability (SLD) for rehabilitation psychologists. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  37. Meyers, J. E., & Meyers, K. R. (1995).Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  38. Mitchell, J. V., Jr. (1985). SCL-90. InThe ninth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 1324–1929 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  39. Morris, R. D.,Walter, L. W. (1991). Subtypes of arithmetic-disabled adults: Validating childhood findings. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.),Neuropsychological validation of learning disability subtypes(pp. 330–346). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  40. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (1994).Collective perspectives on issues affecting learning disabilities: Position papers and statement. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  41. Notebook. ( 1996, January 12).Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A33.Google Scholar
  42. Osterrieth, P. A. (1944). Le test de copie d’une figure compleseArchives de Psychologie, 30, 206–356.Google Scholar
  43. Osterrieth, P. A. (1993) J. Corwin & F. W. Bylsma, Trans.The Clinical Neuropsychologist, Z 9–15.Google Scholar
  44. Petrauskas, R., Rourke, B. P. (1979). Identification of subgroups of retarded readers: A neuropsychological, multivariate approach.Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 17–37.Google Scholar
  45. Psychological Corporation. (1992).Wechsler Individual Achievement Test manual. San Antonio, TX: Author.Google Scholar
  46. P.L. 94–142. (1975). The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 , 20 U.S.C. SS1401 et seq., 45 C.F.R. 121(a).Google Scholar
  47. Reitan, R.,Wolfson, D. (1992). Neuropsychological evaluation of older children. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  48. Reitan, R., & Wolfson, D. (1993).The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and clinical interpretation. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  49. Reynolds, C. R. (1984). Critical measurement issues in learning disabilities.Journal of Special Education, 18, 451–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reynolds, C. R., & Kaufman, A. S. (1990). Assessment of children’s intelligence with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). In C. R. Reynolds R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.),Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Intelligence and achievement (pp. 127–165 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  51. Reynolds, C. R., Stanton, H. C. (1988). Discrepancy determinator DDI: Technical and interpretive manual. College Station, TX: A M University: Train.Google Scholar
  52. Rourke, B. P. (Ed.). (1985).Neuropsychology of learning disabilities: Essentials of subtype analysis. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  53. Rourke, B. P. (1989).Nonverbal learning disabilities: The syndrome and the model. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  54. Rourke, B. P. (1991).Neuropsychological validation of learning disability subtypes. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  55. Rourke, B. P. (1993). Arithmetic disabilities, specific and otherwise: A neuropsychological perspective.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4, 214–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rourke, B. P. (1995).Syndrome of nonverbal learning disability. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  57. Rourke, B. P., Fisk, J. L., Strang, J. D. (1986). Neuropsycholoeical assessment of children. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  58. Russell, E. W., Neuringer, C., & Goldstein, G. (1970).Assessment of brain damage: A neuropsychological key approach. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  59. Sattler, J. M. (1992).Assessment of children: Revised and updated third edition. San Diego, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  60. Sparks Center for Developmental and Learning Disorders. (1985). Case history , SLD characteristics observation checklist , and attention deficit disorder checklist. Birmingham: University of Alabama. Stowe, R. M. (in press). Assessment methods in behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry. In G. Goldstein, P. Nussbaum, S. R. Beers (Eds.), Neuropsychology. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  61. Szuhay, J. A., & Newill, B. (1980). Learning disability history form.Field investigation and evaluation of learning disabilities: Vol. 4. A proposed model for state vocational rehabilitation agencies service delivery to the learning disabled. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.Google Scholar
  62. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E. P., Sattler, J. M. (1986a). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (4th ed.): Guide for administration and scoring. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  63. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E. P., & Sattler, J. M. (1986b).Stanford-Binct Intelligence Scale (4th ed.): Technical manual. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  64. Vocational Rehabilitation Center of Allegheny County. (1983).Specific learning disabilities: A resource manual for vocational rehabilitation. Pittsburgh, PA: Author.Google Scholar
  65. Wechsler, D. (1981).Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. New York: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  66. Wechsler, D. (1987).Manual for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. New York: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  67. Wechsler, D. (1989).Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  68. Wechsler, D. (1991).Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  69. Wiederholt, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (1992).Gray Oral Reading Tests-3rd Edition: Examiners manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  70. Wilkinson, G. S. (1993).The Wide Range Achievement Test administration manual. Wilmington, DE: Wide Range.Google Scholar
  71. Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B. (1989a).Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery—Revised Edition: Examiner’s manual. Dallas, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
  72. Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B. (1989b).Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery—Revised Edition: Norm tables. Dallas, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
  73. World Health Organization. (1980).The international classification of impairments, disability, and handicaps. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  74. Yeudall, L. T., Fromm, D., Reddon, J. R., Stefanyk, W. O. (1986). Normative data stratified by age and sex for 12 neuropsychological tests.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 918–946.Google Scholar
  75. Zvi, J. C., Axelrod, L. H. (1992). Learning disabled college students: An analysis of the factors emerging from initial assessment [Abstract].Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sue R. Beers
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations