Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiomyopathy

  • Jennifer E. Liu
  • Richard B. Devereux

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is a potent independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.1, 2 It has been recognized for several decades that diabetic patients have a 2 to 3 fold higher risk for CVD than their nondiabetic counterparts. CVD accounts for up to 80% of deaths in patients with diabetes, approximately 75% of which are due to ischemic heart disease. More than 25% of diabetic patients have evidence of CVD at diagnosis. Therefore, the American Heart Association has stated that “diabetes is a cardiovascular disease”.3

Keywords

Diabetic Patient Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Heart Outcome Prevention Evaluation Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Coronary Artery Surgery Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Garcia MJ, McNamara M, Gordon T, Kannel WB. 16 year follow-up study. Morbidity and mortality in diabetics in the Framingham population. Diabetes 23: 105, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease; the Framingham Study. JAMA 241: 2035–8, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grundy SM, Benjamin IJ, Burke GL et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 100 (10): 1134–46, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laakso M, Lehto S. Epidemiology of macrovascular disease in diabetes. Diabetes Rev 5: 294–315, 1997.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brezinka V, Padmos I. Coronary heart disease risk factors in women. Eur Heart J 15: 1571–1584, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, et al. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 339 (4): 229–34, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stone PH, Muller JE, Hartwell, T, et al. The MILIS Study Group. The effect of diabetes mellitus on prognosis and serial left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction: contribution of both coronary artery disease and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction to the adverse prognosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 14: 49–57, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gu K, Cowie CC, Harris MI. Diabetes and decline in heart disease mortality in US adults. JAMA 281: 1291–1297, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miettinen H, Lehto S, Salomaa V, et al. Impact of diabetes on mortality after the first myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care 21: 69–75, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Naka M, Hiramatsu K, Aizawa T, et al. Silent myocardial ischemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes as judged by treadmill exercise testing and coronary angiography. Am Heart J 123: 46–52, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Langer A, Freeman M, Josse R, et al. Detection of silent myocardial ischemia in diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 67: 1073–8, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Caracciolo EA, Chaitman BR, Forman SR et al. Diabetics with coronary disease have a prevalence of asymptomatic ischemia during exercise treadmill testing and ambulatory ischemia monitoring similar to that of non-diabetic patients. Circulation 1996; 93: 2097–2105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD et al. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-year cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Diabetes Care 16: 434–444, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ADA Consensus Panel. Role of cardiovascular risk factors in prevention and treatment of macrovascular disease in diabetes: American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 12: 573–579, 1989.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koskinen P, Manttari M, Manninen V, et al. Coronary heart disease incidence in NIDDM patients in the Helskinki Heart Study. Diabetes Care15(7): 820–5, 1992.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pyorala K, Pedersen TR, Kjekshus J, et al. Cholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. A subgroup analysis of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Diabetes Care 20 (4): 614–20, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goldberg RB, Mellies MJ, Sacks FM et al. For the CARE investigators. Cardiovascular events and their reduction with pravastatin in diabetic and glucose-intolerant myocardial infarction survivors with average cholesterol levels: subgroup analyses in the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial. Circulation 98: 2513–2519, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285: 2486–2497, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomized trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 351 (9118): 1755–62, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Curb JD, Pressel SL, Cutler JA, et al. for the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Cooperative Research Group: Effect of diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Cooperative Research Group. JAMA 276: 1886–1892, 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. Br Med J 317 (7160): 703–13, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Hiatt WR et al: The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J Med 338: 645–652, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tatti P, Pahor M, Byrington RB, et al: Outcome results of the Fosinopril Versus Amlopidine Cardiovascular Events Randomized Trial (FACET) in patients with hypertension and NIDDM. Diabetes Care 21: 597–603, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetees mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Lancet 355:253–9, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mogensen CE. Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes. N Engl J Med 310: 356–360, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 345: 861–869, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brownlee M. Glycation and diabetic complications. Diabetes 43: 83641, 1994.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    West KM, Ahuja MM, Bennet PH, et al. The role of circulating glucose and triglyceride concentrations and their interactions with other “risk factors” as determinants of arterial disease in nine diabetic population samples from the WHO Multinational Study. Diabetes Care 6: 361–369, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wilson WF, Cupples AD, Kannel WB. Is hyperglycemia associated with cardiovascular disease? The Framingham Study. Am Heart J 2: 586–590, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jarrett RJ, Shipley MJ. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: Putative association via common antecedents: Further evidence from the Whitehall Study. Diabetologia 31:737–740, 1988.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kuusisto J, Mykkanen L, Pyorala K, et al. NIDDM and its metabolic control predict coronary heart disease in elderly subjects. Diabetes 43: 960–967, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klein R: Kelly West Lecture 1994: Hyperglycemia and microvascular and macrovascular disease in diabetes. Diabetes Care18: 258–268, 1995.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (DCCT): The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 329: 977–986, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group: Intensive blood-glucose control with sulfonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS33). Lancet 352: 837–852, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Colwell JA: Aspirin therapy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 20: 1767–1771, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Malmberg K, Ryden L, Efendic S, et al. Randomized trial of insulin-glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI Study): effects on mortality at 1 year. J Am Coll Cardiol 26: 57–65, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    KendallMJ, Lynch KP, Hjalmarson A, et al. Beta-blockers and sudden cardiac death. Ann Intern Med 123: 358–67, 1995.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kornowski R, Mintz GS, Kent KM, et al. Increased restenosis in diabetes mellitus after coronary interventions is due to exaggerated intimai hyperplasia. Circulation 95: 1366–69, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) Investigators. Comparison of coronary bypass surgery with angioplasty in patients with multivessel disease. N Engl J Med 335: 217–25, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    King SB, Lembo NJ, Weintraub WS, et al, for the Emory Angioplasty Versus Surgery Trial (EAST). A randomized trial comparing coronary angioplasty with coronary bypass surgery. N Engl J Med 331: 1044–50, 1994.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abbott RD, Donahue RP, Kannel WB, et al. The impact of diabetes on survival following myocardial infarction in men vs. women. The Framingham Study. JAMA 260: 3456, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu JE, Robbins DC, Sosenko J, et al. Abnormal LV Structure and Function are Associated with Recent Conversion from Normal Glucose Tolerance to Diabetes Mellitus — the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Diabetes Supp12: 50: 147, 2001.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levy D, Garrison RJ, Savage DD, Kannel WB, Castelli WP: Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med 322: 1561–1566, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liao Y, Cooper RS, McGee DL, Mensah GA, Ghali JK: The relative effects of left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, and ventricular dysfunction on survival among black adults. JAMA 273: 1592–1597, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fein FS, Sonnenblick EH. Diabetic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular Drugs Ther 8: 65–73, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Van Hoeven KV, Factor SM. A comparison of the pathological spectrum of hypertensive, diabetic, and hypertensive-diabetic heart disease. Circulation 82: 848–855, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Galderisi M, Anderson KM, Wilson PW et al. Echocardiographic evidence for the existence of a distinct diabetic cardiomyopathy (The Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 68: 85–89, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Devereux RB, Roman MJ, Paranicas M, et al. Impact of diabetes on cardiac structure and function. The Strong Heart Study Circulation 101: 2271–2276, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bella JN, Devereux RB, Roman MJ, et al. Separate and joint cardiovascular effects of hypertension and diabetes: The Strong Heart Study. Am J Cardiol 87: 1260–5, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu JE, Palmieri V, Roman MJ et al. Cardiovascular disease and prognosis in adults with glucose disorders: The Strong Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 35: 263A, 2000.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Regan TJ, Wu CF, Yeh CK, Oldewurtle HA, Haider B. Myocardial composition and function in diabetes: the effect of chronic insulin use. Circ Res 49: 1268–1277, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jain A, Avendano G, Dharamsey S, et al. Left ventricular diastolic function in hypertension and role of plasma glucose and insulin. Comparison with diabetic heart. Circulation 93: 1396–1402, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mock MB, Ringqvist I, Fischer LD, and Participants in the Coronary Artery Surgery Study (CASS) Registry. Survival of medically treated patients in the coronary artery surgery study (CASS) registry. Circulation 66: 562–571, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Liu JE, Palmieri V, Roman MJ, et. al. The impact of glycemia and diabetes on left ventricular filling pattern: The Strong Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 37: 1943–9, 2001.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bella JN, Palmieri V, Roman MJ, et al. Prognostic significance of abnormal peak early to late diastolic filling ratio in middle-aged to elderly American Indians: The Strong Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 35: 293A, 2000.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liu, J.E., Palmieri V, Roman MJ, et al. Association of albuminuria with systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes: The Strong Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 37: 221A, 2001.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Deckert T, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Borch-Johnsen K, Jensen T, KofoedEnevoldsen. Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage — The Steno Hypothesis. Diabetologia 32: 219–226, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yla-Herrtuala S, Sumuvuori H, Karkola K, Mottonen M, Nikkari T.Glycosaminoglycans in normal and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries. Lab Invest 61: 231–236, 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer E. Liu
  • Richard B. Devereux

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations