Advertisement

Electrical fluctuations in point contacts

  • Yu. G. Naidyuk
  • I. K. Yanson
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 145)

Abstract

Noise is a great problem in science and technology because it dictates sensitivity of existing electronic devices limiting the magnitude and accuracy of measurements, and the quality of processing various signals. Noise is an unwanted voltage or current of fluctuation nature generated by the electronic device or some circuit component. Because the current carriers in a conductor are in permanent motion, this will cause a rise in fluctuation voltage V n appearing at the conductor edges. At each particular moment of time, this voltage has a definite value, but when it is averaged over a long time, it becomes equal to zero. This type of noise is called Nyquist or thermal noise, and its average square value 〈V n 2 〉 originating on the resistance R in the frequency rangeΔf is proportional to the temperature T:
$$ \left\langle {V_{n}^{2}} \right\rangle = 4{{k}_{B}}TR\Delta f. $$
(9.1)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akimenko A. I., Verkin A. B. and Yanson I. K. (1984) J. Low Temp. Phys. 54 247.Google Scholar
  2. Al imenko A. I., Verkin A. B. and Yanson I. K. (1985) Soy. J. Low Temp. Phys. 11 391.Google Scholar
  3. Black J. L. (1981) in Glassy Metals ed. by H. J. Güntherodt and H. Back ( Springer Verlag, Berlin ) 167.Google Scholar
  4. Dutta P., Diman P. and Horn P. M. (1979) Phys. Rev. Let. 43 646. Dutta P. and Horn P. M. (1981) Rev. Mod. Phys. 53 497.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. He lweg P. A. M., Caro J., Verbruggen A. H. and Radelaar S. (1992) Phys. Rev. B 45 9311.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hooge F. N. (1969) Phys. Lett. A 29 139.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hooge F. N. and Hoppenbrouwers A. M. H. (1969) Phys. Lett. A 29 642.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hooge F. N. (1976) Physica B 83 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kulik I. O. and Omelyanchouk A. N. (1984) Soy. J. Low Temp. Phys. 10 158.Google Scholar
  10. Mlchlup S. (1954) J. Appl. Phys. 25 341.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Matej V. (1993) Solid State Commun. 86 179.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ralls K S. and Buhrman R. A. (1988) Phys. Rev. Lett. 44 2434.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ralls K S. and Buhrman R. A. (1991) Phys. Rev. B 44 5800.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Yanson 1. K, Akimenko A. 1. and Verkin A. B. (1982) Solid State Commun. 43 765.Google Scholar
  15. Zagoskin A. M., Kulik 1. O. and Omelyanchouk A. N. (1987) Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 13 332.Google Scholar
  16. Zagoskin A. M., Kulik 1. O. and Omelyanchouk A. N. (1992) Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 18475.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu. G. Naidyuk
    • 1
  • I. K. Yanson
    • 1
  1. 1.B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and EngineeringNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKharkivUkraine

Personalised recommendations