Strontium is Required in Artificial Seawater for Embryonic Shell Formation in Two Species of Bivalve Molluscs

  • Scott M. Gallager
  • Joseph P. Bidwell
  • Alan M. Kuzirian

Abstract

Strontium is required in artificial seawater for the formation of the calcareous embryonic shell of the bivalves Mercenaria mercenaria (Linne, 1758) and Bankia gouldi (Bartsch, 1908). Embryos reared in defined media without strontium chloride become swimming larvae that appear normal except that the mineralized portion of the prodissoconch I shell is absent. Calcification is sensitive to small differences in strontium concentrations and a level of 6–8 ppm is required for normal development. Structural defects also result at high concentrations of this element, 3 to 10 times that of natural seawater, or when barium is substituted for strontium. Exposure to strontium is required only between hours 15–30 of the 40–45 hour embryonic period. Shell mineralization is initiated at hour 20 while the organic layer is observed with SEM at hour 18 and appears complete by hour 26. Larval shell growth (prodissoconch II) and statolith formation in M. mercenaria do not require the presence of strontium. These results are compared with those obtained earlier for the gastropod Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) and the implications are discussed.

Keywords

Artificial Seawater Natural Seawater Shell Formation Ventral Margin Hinge Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott M. Gallager
    • 1
  • Joseph P. Bidwell
    • 2
  • Alan M. Kuzirian
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  2. 2.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  3. 3.Section on Neural SystemsLaboratory of Biophysics, NINCDS-NIH, Marine Biological LaboratoryWoods HoleUSA

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