Markedness pp 107-138 | Cite as

Markedness and Distribution in Phonology and Syntax

  • Jeanette K. Gundel
  • Kathleen Houlihan
  • Gerald A. Sanders
Chapter

Abstract

The notion of markedness has been used, in a variety of distinct but possibly related senses, for the description and analysis of phenomena involving both the syntactic and phonological structures of human languages. It has frequently been assumed that there is a single and relatively clear sense of markedness that is equally relevant to phonology and syntax alike, and this assumption, in fact, constitutes a crucial precondition for a number of general linguistic hypotheses that have recently been proposed--for example, Eckman (1977) and Comrie (1984). The basic notion of markedness, however, and a number of the most fundamental concepts associated with it--concepts such as “neutralization”, “mark”, “opposition”, “privative”, and “bilateral”--were first developed and exemplified, by Trubetzkoy (1939[1969]) and others, on the basis of phonological data alone. It thus remains to be determined whether this notion is indeed applicable in the domain of syntax or not. This paper will seek to address this question and to clarify thereby the general notion of markedness itself and its significance in the development of linguistic hypotheses.

Keywords

Free Variation Relative Clause Main Clause Prepositional Phrase Subordinate Clause 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguas, E.F. 1968. Gudandji. Pacific Linguistics, A, 14, 1–20.Google Scholar
  2. Bever, T.G. and D.T. Langendoen. 1971. A dynamic model of the evolution of language. Linguistic Inquiry. 2. 4: 433–464.Google Scholar
  3. Canfield, D.L. 1981. Spanish pronunciation in the Americas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chao, Yuen Ren. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Comrie, Bernard. 1984. Why linguists need language learners. In Language Universals and Second Language Acquisition ed. by W.E. Rutherford. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  6. Cunningham, M.C. 1969. A description of the Yugumbir dialect of Bandjalang. (University of Queensland Faculty of Arts Papers, 1/8.) Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  7. De Burca, Sein. 1970. The Irish of Tourmakeady. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Derbyshire, Desmond C. 1977. Word order universals and the existence of OVS Languages. Linguistic Inquiry 8. 3: 590–99.Google Scholar
  9. Dixon, R.M.W. 1972. The Dyirbal language of North Queensland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dixon, R.M.W. 1977. A Grammar of Yidin. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Eckman, Fred. 1977. Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Language Learning 27. 2: 315–30.Google Scholar
  12. Ferguson, Charles A. 1961. Assumptions about nasals: a sample study of phonological universals. In Universals of Language ed. by J.H. Greenberg, 2nd edition, 1966. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1966. Language Universals. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  14. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1965. Some generalizations concerning initial and final consonant clusters. Linguistics 18: 5–32.Google Scholar
  15. Gundel, Jeanette K. 1974. The role of topic and comment in linguistic theory. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Texas at Austin. Reproduced by Indiana University Linguistics Club, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, James W. 1969. Spanish phonology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Houlihan, Kathleen and Gregory K. Iverson. 1979. Functionally constrained phonology. In Current Approaches to Phonological Theory ed. by D.A. Dinnsen, pp. 50–73. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Houlihan, Kathleen and Gregory K. Iverson. 1980. On determining the markedness of phonological segments, Minnesota Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language, ed. by N. Stenson, pp. 73–83.Google Scholar
  19. Jakobson, Roman. 1968. Child language, aphasia and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  20. Keenan, Edward L. and Bernard Comrie. 1977. Noun phrase accessi- bility and universal grammar. Linguistic Inquiry 8.1:63–100. Kim-Renaud, Young-Kee. 1974. Korean Consonantal Phonology. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Hawaii at Manoa.Google Scholar
  21. Kirton, Jean F. 1967. Anyula phonology. Pacific Linguistics, A, 10, 15–28.Google Scholar
  22. Kuno, Susumu. 1976. Theme, rheme and the speakers’ empathy. In Subject and Topic ed. by Charles N. Li, New York: Academic Press, pp. 417–444.Google Scholar
  23. Ladefoged, Peter. 1982. A Course in Phonetics 2nd edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  24. Lehtinen, Meri. 1963. Basic Course in Finnish. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Mattoso Camara, Jr. J. 1972. The Portuguese Language. Translated by A.J. Naro. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Moulton, William G. 1962. The Sounds of English and German. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. Nunez, Rafael A. 1977. Fonologia del espanol de Santo Domingo. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  28. Quilis, Antonio and Joseph A. Fernandez. 1966. Curso de fonetica y fonologia espanolas. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas.Google Scholar
  29. Ruhlen, Merrit. 1975. A Guide to the Languages of the World. Stanford: Stanford University Language Universals Project. de Saussure, Ferdinand. 1915. Course in General Linguistics. English translation. New York: Philosophical Library, 1959.Google Scholar
  30. Trubetzkoy, N.S. 1939. Principles of Phonology. English translation by C.A.M. Baltaxe. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  31. UPSID: UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. 1981. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 53.Google Scholar
  32. Vennemann, Theo. 1974. Topics, subjects and word order: from SXV via TVX. In J.M. Anderson and C. Jones, eds., Historical Linguistics vol. 1, pp. 339–376. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  33. Whitney, William Dwight. 1889. A Sanskrit Grammar. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanette K. Gundel
    • 1
  • Kathleen Houlihan
    • 1
  • Gerald A. Sanders
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaUSA

Personalised recommendations