Experiments are done at nonzero temperatures. Since one goal of many-body theory is to explain experiments (another is to predict them), the theories should be done at nonzero temperatures too. It is often unnecessary if the temperature is small compared to other energies in the problem. But often temperature is important, and here it will be incorporated into Green’s functions. The nonzero temperature formalism was originated by Matsubara (1955). It will actually be easier to use than the zero-temperature theory of Chapter 2, so that the Matsubara method will be used throughout the remainder of the book. The zero-temperature result is always easily obtained from the nonzero-temperature result by just setting T = 0.
KeywordsSpectral Function Nonzero Temperature Kubo Formula Wigner Distribution Function Retarded Function
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