Personality Trait Correlates of Intelligence

  • Moshe Zeidner
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

For more than half a century now, psychologists have explored the avenues linking human intelligence to a wide array of personality traits. Psychologists have longed to unravel the theoretical and practical interface between personality and intelligence, hoping to shed light on how these two key constructs affect one another (and other variables) in the course of development, day-to-day behavior, and adaptive functioning. Indeed, personality and intelligence are linked by virtue of being key sources of individual differences in behavior, and would seem to share many parameters in common and various conceptual links between these concepts do appear in the literature, as discussed in Chapter 1 of this handbook (see also H. J. Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985). Although some of the most influential figures in the field of intelligence and personality allude repeatedly to the inextricable web or nexus of interrelations among these two constructs (see Chapter 13), researchers have traditionally treated them as relatively independent factors in their analyses.

Keywords

Personality Trait Trait Anxiety Grade Point Average Test Anxiety Intelligence Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. J., Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper Row.Google Scholar
  2. Alpert, R., Haber, R. N. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61, 207–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony, W. S. (1973). The development of extraversion, of ability, and of the relation between them. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 43, 223–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argyle, M. (1961). Religious behavior. Chicago: Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Argyle, M., Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1975). The social psychology of religion. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  6. Atkinson, J. W. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  7. Averill, J. R. (1982). Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball, S. A., Zuckerman, M. (1992). Sensation seeking and selective attention: Focused and divided attention on a dichotic listening task. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 825–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron, J. (1982). Personality and intelligence. In R. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 308–351 ). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Barron, F. (1953). Some test correlates of response to psycho- therapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 235–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barron, F., Harrington, D. M. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 439–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berg, C., Sternberg, R. (1985). Response to novelty: Continuity vs. discontinuity in the development course of intelligence. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 19. pp. 1–47 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Blankenstein, K. R., Flett, G. L., Watson, M. S., Koledin, S. (1990). Test anxiety, self-evaluative worry, and sleep disturbance in college students. Anxiety Research, 3, 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brody, N. (1988). Personality: In search of individuality. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, R. (1965). Social psychology. Toronto: Collier-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Byrne, D. (1974). An introduction to personality research: Theory and applications ( 2nd ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Carver, C. E, Scheier, M. F. (1989). Expectancies and coping: From test anxiety to pessimism. In R. Schwarzer, H. M. Van der Pleog, C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 6, pp. 3–11 ). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  19. Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth and action. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  20. Christie, R. (1954). Authoritarianism re-examined. In R. Christie M. Jahoda (Eds.), Studies in the scope and method of “The Authoritarian Personality.” New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Coleman, J. C., Butcher, J. N., Carson, R. C. (1984). Abnormal psychology ( 7th ed. ). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  22. Coleman, J. S., Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D., York, R. L. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: Department of Education.Google Scholar
  23. Crookes, T. G., Pearson, P. R., Francis, L. J., Carter, M. (1981). Extraversion and performance on Raven’s Progressive Matrices in 15–16-year-old children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 109–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crowne, D. P. (1979). The experimental study of personality. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Darlington, R. B. (1990). Regression and linear models. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  26. Deffenbacher, J. (1980). Worry and emotionality in test anxiety. In I. Sarason (Ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research and applications (pp. 111–128 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Evans, R. G., Forbach, G. B. (1982). Intellectual ability correlates of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46 59–62.Google Scholar
  28. Eysenck, H. J. (1967a). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  29. Eysenck, H. J. (1967b). Intelligence assessment: A theoretical and experimental approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 37, 81–98.Google Scholar
  30. Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Relation between intelligence and personality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 32, 637–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eysenck, H. J., Cookson, D. (1969). Personality in primary school children-ability and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 109-130.Google Scholar
  32. Eysenck, H. J., Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention and arousal: Cognition and performance. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fisher, G. (1967). The performance of male prisoners on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale: II. Differences as a function of race and crime. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 473–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gaudry, E., Spielberger, C. D. (1971). Anxiety and educational achievement. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Getzels, J. W., Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Glover, J. A., Ronning, R. R., Reynolds, C. P. (Eds.). (1989). Handbook of creativity. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  38. Guilford, J. P. (1959). Three faces of intellect. American Psychologist, 14, 469–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  40. Haan, N. (1963). Proposed model of ego functioning: Coping and defense mechanisms in relationship to IQ change. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 77, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hakstian, A. R., Cattell, R. B. (1978). An examination of inter-domain relationships among some ability and personality traits. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38, 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamlin, R. M. (1963). The stability of intellectual functioning in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 136, 360–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heckhausen, H. (1967). The anatomy of achievement motivation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Heffner, P. A., Strauss, M. E., Grisell, J. (1975). Rehospitalization of schizophrenics as a function of intelligence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 735–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47–77.Google Scholar
  46. Henderson, R. B., Wilson, S. E. (1991). Intelligence and curiosity in preschool children. Journal of School Psychology, 29, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hiler, E. W. (1958). Wechsler-Bellvue intelligence as a predictor of continuation in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 14, 192–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hope, D. A., Heimberg, R. G. (1990). Dating anxiety. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of social and evaluative anxiety (pp. 217–246 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  49. Huesmann, L. R., Eron, 1. D., Yarmel, P. W. (1987). Intellectual functioning and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 218–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jahoda, G. (1971). The psychology of superstition. Middlesex, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  51. Jensen, A. R. (1964). Individual differences in learning: Interference factors. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Co-op project no. 1867.Google Scholar
  52. Jones, W. H., Russel, D. W., Nickel, T. (1977). Belief in the Paranormal Scale: An objective instrument to measure belief in magical phenomena and causes. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 7, 100.Google Scholar
  53. Kagan, J., Sontag, L. W., Nelson, V. L. (1958). Personality and IQ change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 56, 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Killen, P., Wildman, R. W. (1974). Superstitiousness and intelligence. Psychological Reports, 34, 1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kipnis, D. (1971). Character structure and impulsiveness. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Lazarus, R. S., Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Liebert, R. M., Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lloyd, J. (1984). Intrinsic intellectuality: Its relation to social class, intelligence, and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 646–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lynn, R., Hampson, S. L., Magee, M. (1982). Determinants of educational achievement at 16+: Intelligence, personality, home background and school. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 473–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Matarazzo, J. D. (1972). Wechsler’s measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence ( 5th ed. ). Baltimore, MD: Williams Wilkins.Google Scholar
  62. Maroyama, G., Rubin, R. A., Kingsbury, G. G.. (1981). Self-esteem and educational achievement: Independent constructs with a common cause. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 962–975.Google Scholar
  63. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., Zigler, E., Dreyden, J. I. (1989). Intelligence and intelligence related traits. Intelligence, 13, 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCrae, R. R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1258–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Minkowitch, A., Davis, D., Bashi, Y. (1982). Success and failure in Israeli elementary education. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  66. Mischel, W., Metzner, R. (1962). Preference for delayed reward as a function of age, intelligence, and length of delay interval. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64, 425–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mueller, J. H. (1980). Test anxiety and the encoding and retrieval of information. In I. Sarason (Ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research and applications (pp. 63–86 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  68. Nicholls, J. G. (1972). Creativity in the person who will never produce anything original and useful: The concept of creativity as a normally distributed trait. American Psychologist, 27, 717–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Payne, R. (1991). Individual differences in cognition and the stress process. In C. L. Cooper R. Payne (Ed.), Personality and stress: Individual differences in the stress process. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Payne, R. W. (1973). Cognitive abnormalities. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), Handbook of abnormal psychology (pp. 420–483). San Diego: R. R. Knapp.Google Scholar
  71. Purkey, W. W. (1970). Self-concept and school achievement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  72. Revelle, W., Amaral, P., Turriff, S. (1976). Introversion/ extraversion, time stress, and caffeine: Effects on verbal test performance. Science, 192, 149–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Revelle, W., Humphreys, M. S., Simon, L., Gilliland, K. (1980). The interactive effects of personality, time of day, and caffeine: A test of the arousal model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rhodes, A. C., Nam, C. B. (1970). The religious context of educational expectations. American Sociological Review, 35, 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Robinson, D. L. (1985). How personality relates to intelligence test performance: Implications for a theory of intelligence, ageing research, and personality assessment. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Robinson, D. L. (1986). The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and personality assessment: Towards a biologically based theory of intelligence and cognition. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 153–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal vs. external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  78. Rutter, M., Lockyer, L. (1967). A five-fifteen year follow up study of infantile psychosis-I. Description of sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1169–1182.Google Scholar
  79. Saklofske, D. H., Kostura, D. D. (1990). Extraversionintraversion and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Samuel, W. (1980). Mood and personality correlates of IQ by race and sex of subject. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 993–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sarason, I. G. (1975). Test anxiety, attention, and the general problem of anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 1, pp. 165–210 ). New York: Hemisphere/Halstead.Google Scholar
  82. Sarason, I. G. (Ed.). (1980). Test anxiety: Theory, research and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  83. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R. (1990). Test anxiety. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of social and evaluative anxiety (pp. 475–496 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  84. Sattler, J. M. (1988). Assessment of children ( 3rd ed. ). San Diego: Author.Google Scholar
  85. Schwartzman, A. E., Douglas, V. I. (1962). Intellectual loss in schizophrenics. Part I. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 16, 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Seipp, B. (1991). Anxiety and academic performance: A meta-analysis of findings. Anxiety Research, 4, 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Siegman, A. W. (1956). The effect of manifest anxiety on a concept formation task, a nondirected learning task, and on timed and untimed intelligence tests. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20, 176–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness. San Francisco: Freeman. Simon, W. E., Simon, M. G. (1975). Self-esteem, intelligence, and standardized academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 12, 97–100.Google Scholar
  89. Spielberger, C. D. (1972). Conceptual and methodological issues in anxiety research. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety (Vol. 2, pp. 482–493 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  90. Spielberger, C. D., Gonzales, H. P., Taylor, C. J., Algaze, B. Anton, W. D. (1978). Examination stress and test anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 5, pp. 167–191). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  91. Spielberger, C. D., Jacobs, G., Russell, S., Crane, R. (1983). Assessment of anger: the State-Trait Anger Scale. In J. N. Butcher C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in personality assessment. Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  92. Spielberger, C. D., Johnson, E. H., Russell, S. F., Crane, R. J., Jacobs, G. A., Worden, T. J. (1985). The experience and expression of anger: Construction and validation of an anger expression scale. In M. A. Chesney R. H. Rosenman (Eds.), Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral disorders. New York: Hemisphere/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  93. Spielberger, C. D., Katzenmeyer, W. C. (1959). Manifest anxiety, intelligence, and college grades. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23, 278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Symington, T. A. (1935). Religious liberals and conservatives. New York: Columbia University Teachers College.Google Scholar
  95. Tobias, S. (1986). Anxiety and cognitive processing of instruction. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self related cognitions in anxiety and motivation (pp. 247–263 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  96. Thompson, R. C., Michel, J. B. (1972). Measuring authoritarianism: A comparison of the F and D scales. Journal of Personality, 40, 180–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Veroff, J. McClelland, L., Marquis, K. (1971). Measuring intelligence and achievement motivation in surveys. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  98. Wallach, M. (1985). Creativity testing and giftedness. In F. Horowitz M. O’Brien (Eds.), The gifted and talented: Developmental perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  99. Wallach, M. A., Kogan, N. (1965). A new look at the creativity-intelligence distinction. Journal of Personality, 33, 348–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Watson, C. G., Herder, J., Kucala, T., Hoodecheck-Schow, E. (1987). Intellectual deterioration and personality decompensation in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 447–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wechsler, D. (1944). The measurement of adult intelligence ( 3rd ed. ). Baltimore, MD: Williams Wilkins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weiner, B. (1973). Theories of motivation. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  103. Wilson, G. (1977). Introversion/extraversion. In T. Blass (Ed.), Personality variables in social behavior (pp. 179–218 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  104. Yerkes, R. M., Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative and Neurological Psychology, 18, 459–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zeidner, M. (1990). Some demographic and health correlates of trait anger in Israeli adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 24, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zeidner, M., Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1988). Sex, ethnic and social class differences in para-religious beliefs among Israeli adolescents. Journal of Social Psychology, 128, 333–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zeidner, M., Klingman, A., Papko, O. (1988). Enhancing students’ test coping skills: Report of a psychological health education program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zeidner, M., Nevo, B. (1992). Test anxiety in examinees in a college admission testing situation: Incidence, dimensionality, and cognitive correlates. In K. Hagtvet (Ed.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 7, pp. 288–303 ). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets Zeitliner.Google Scholar
  109. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  110. Zusne, L., Jones, W. H. (1982). Anomalistic psychology: A study of extraordinary phenomena, of behavior, and experience. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moshe Zeidner
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of HaifaMount CarmelIsrael

Personalised recommendations