A Cognitive-Social Description of Exceptional Children

  • Vicki L. Schwean
  • Donald H. Saklofske
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

There is considerable evidence through the works of early and contemporary philosophers, scientists, educators, and artists, that humankind is most fascinated by itself. Our history is replete with descriptions of both individual and group differences in human behavior. Exceptionalities have been the focus of much of this interest, ranging from the gifted mathematician and the idiot savant to the great political leader and the schizophrenic. Human similarities, differences, and exceptionalities have frequently been viewed and even defined in relation to intelligence and personality.

Keywords

Behavioral Disorder Learning Disability Disable Child Learn Disability Aggressive Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, D., and Howes, C. (1986). Sociometric status and after-school social activity of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 416–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman, P. T., Elardo, P. T., and Dykman, R. A. (1979). A psychosocial study of hyperactive and learning disabled boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 91–99.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., and Edelbrock, C. S. (1989). Diagnostic, taxonomic, and assessment issues. In T. H. 011endick and M. HersenGoogle Scholar
  4. Eds.), Handbook of child psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, F. (1949). Fundamentals of psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (rev. 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Ansbacher, H. L., and Ansbacher, R. B. (Eds.). (1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Aponik, D. A., and Dembo, M. H. (1983). LD and normal adolescents’ causal attributions of success and failure at different levels of task difficulty. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asarnow, J. R., and Callan, J. W. (1985). Boys with peer adjustment problems: Social cognitive processes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 80–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkinson, J. W. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  12. Axelrod, L. (1982). Social perception in learning disabled ado- lescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 610–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ayres, R., Cooley, E., and Dunn, C. (1990). Self-concept, attribution, and persistence in learning-disabled students. Journal of School Psychology, 28, 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  15. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  16. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bandura, A., Ross, D., and Ross, S. (1963). Imitation of film mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnonnal and Social Psychology, 69, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barkley, R. A. (1990). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  20. Bates, E., and MacWhinney, B. (1982). Functionalist approaches to grammar. In E. Wanner and L. R. Gleitman (Eds.), Language acquisition: The state of the art (pp. 173–218 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bender, W. N., and Golden, L. B. (1990). Subtypes of students with learning disabilities as derived from cognitive, academic, behavioral, and self-concept measures. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 13, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berko Gleason, J. (1993). The development of language ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Borkowski, J. G., Estrada, M. T., Milstead, M., and Hale, C. A. (1989). General problem-solving skills: Relations between metacognition and strategic processing. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Borkowski, J. G., Johnston, M. B., and Reid, M. K. (1986). Meta-cognition, motivation, and controlled performance. In S. J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive, social, and neurological aspects of learning disabilities (Vol. 2, pp. 147–173 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Boucher, C. R. (1984). Pragmatics: The verbal language of learning disabled and nondisabled boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Brown, A. (1978). Knowing when, where and how to remember: A problem of mental cognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 77–165 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Bruck, M., and Hebert, M. (1982). Correlates of learning disabled students’ peer-interaction patterns. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bryan, J. H., Bryan, T., and Sonnefeld, J. (1982). Being known by the company one keeps: The contagion of first impressions. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 288–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bryan, J. H., and Perlmutter, B. (1979). Immediate impressions of LD children by female adults. Learning Disability Quarterly, 2, 80–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bryan, J. H., and Sherman, R. (1980). Immediate impressions of non-verbal ingratiation attempts by learning disabled boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 3, 19–28.Google Scholar
  33. Bryan, T. (1991). Social problems and learning disabilities. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (pp. 195–229 ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Bryan, T., Donahue, M., Pearl, R., and Sturn, C. (1981). Learning disabled children’s conversational skills-the “T.V. talk show”. Learning Disability Quarterly, 4, 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Buss, A. H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Butterfield, W. H., and Cobb, N. H. (1994). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents. In D. K. Granvold (Ed.), Cognitive and behavioral treatment: Methods and applications (pp. 65–89 ). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  37. Cantwell, D. P., and Baker, L. (1991). Association between attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 88–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cattell, R. B., and Drevdahl, J. E. (1955). A comparison of the personality profile (16PF) of eminent researchers with that of eminent teachers and administrators, and the general population. British Journal of Psychology, 46, 248–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Center, D. B., and Wascom, A. M. (1986). Teacher perceptions of social behavior in learning disabled and socially normal children and youth. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 420–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chapman, J. W. (1988a). Cognitive-motivational characteristics and academic achievement of learning disabled children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chapman, J. W. (1988b). Learning disabled children’s self- concepts. Review of Educational Research, 58, 347–371.Google Scholar
  42. Craighead, W. E., Meyers, A. W., and Craighead, L. W. (1985). A conceptual model for cognitive-behavior therapy with children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 331–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cullinan, D., Epstein, M. H., and Dembinski, R. J. (1979). Behavior problems of educationally handicapped and normal pupils. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 495–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cullinan, D., Epstein, M. H., and Lloyd, J. (1981). School behavior problems of learning disabled and normal girls and boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 4, 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Das, J. P., Naglieri, J. A., and Kirby, J. (1994). Assessment of cognitive processes. New York: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  47. Delgado, J. M. R. (1969). Physical control of the mind. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  48. Deluty, R. H. (1979). Children’s Action Tendency Scale: A self-report measure of aggressiveness, assertiveness, and submissiveness in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 1061–1071.Google Scholar
  49. Deluty, R. H. (1981a). Adaptiveness of aggressive, assertive, and submissive behavior for children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 10, 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Deluty, R. H. (1981b). Alternative-thinking ability of aggressive, assertive, and submissive children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 309–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Derr, A. M. (1986). How learning disabled adolescent boys make moral judgments. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 160–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B., Alley, G. R., Warner, M. M., and Clark, E. L. (1982). Learning disabilities in adolescent and young adult populations: Research implications. Focus on Exceptional Children, 15, 1–12.Google Scholar
  53. Dickstein, E. B., and Warren, D. R. (1980). Role-taking deficits in learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 13, 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Diener, C. I., and Dweck, C. S. (1978). An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes in performances, strategy and achievement cognitions following failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 451–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dishion, T. J. (1990). The family ecology of boys’ peer relations in middle childhood. Child Development, 61, 874–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dodge, K. A., and Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dodge, K. A., and Frame, C. L. (1982). Social cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys. Child Development, 53, 620–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dodge, K. A., Murphy, R. R., and Buchsbaum, K. C. (1984). The assessment of intention-cue detection skills in children: Implications for developmental psychology. Child Development, 55, 163–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dodge, K. A., and Newman, J. P. (1981). Biased decision-making processes in aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 375–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., McClaskey, C. L., and Brown, M. M. (1986). Social competence in children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 51, 1–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dodge, K. A., and Price, J. M. (1990). Hostile attributional biases in severely aggressive adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 385–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dodge, K. A., and Siegmund, L. (1993). Social-cognitive mechanisms in the development of conduct disorder and depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 559–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dodge, K. A., and Somberg, D. R. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threats to the self. Child Development, 58, 213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dodge, K. A., and Tomlin, A. M. (1987) Utilization of selfschemas as a mechanism of interpretational bias in aggressive children. Social Cognition, 5, 280–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Doehring, D. G., and Hoshko, I. M. (1978). Classification of reading problems by the 2-technique of factor analysis. Cortex, 13, 281–294.Google Scholar
  66. Doehring, D. G., Hoshko, I. M., and Bryans, S. (1979). Statistical classification of children with reading problems. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Dollard, J., Doob, W., Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H., and Sears, R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Donahue, M., Pearl, R., and Bryan, T. (1982). Learning disabled children’s syntactic proficiency on a communicative task. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 47, 397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Douglas, V. I. (1980). Higher mental processes in hyperactive children: Implications for training. In R. M. Knights and D. J. Bakker (Eds.), Treatment of hyperactive and learning disordered children (pp. 65–91 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  70. Douglas, V. I. (1983). Attention and cognitive problems. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 280–330 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  71. D’Zurilla, T. J., and Nezu, A. (1982). Social problem solving in adults. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 1, pp. 202–274 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Stuart.Google Scholar
  73. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, M. (1985). Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Eysenck, H. J., and Wilson, C. D. (1973). The experimental study of Freudian theories. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  75. Feuerstein, R., Haywood, H., Rand, Y., Hoffman, M., and Jensen, B. (1984). Examiner manuals for the Learning Potential Assessment Device. Jerusalem: Hadassah-WIZO-Canada Research Institute.Google Scholar
  76. Fielstein, E., Klein, M. S., Fisher, M., Hanon, C., Koburger, P., Schneider, M. J., and Leitenberg, H. (1985). Self-esteem and causal attributions for success and failure in children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 381–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fincham, F. A. (1977). Comparison of moral judgment in learning disabled and normal achieving boys. Journal of Psychology, 96, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fincham, E. A. (1979). Conservation and cognitive role-taking in learning disabled boys. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 12, 34–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fisk, J. L., and Rourke, B. P. (1979). Identification of subtypes of learning disabled children at three age levels: A neuro-psychological, multivariate approach. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Flavell, J. H. (1970). Developmental studies of mediated memory. In H. Reese and L. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 182–211 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  81. Flavell, J. H., Beach, D. R., and Chimsky, J. M. (1966). Spontaneous verbal rehearsal in a memory task as a function of age. Child Development, 37, 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Freud, S. (1955). Beyond the pleasure principle. In J. Stachey (Ed. and Trans.), Standard edition (Vol. 18 ). London: Hogarth. ( Original work published 1920 )Google Scholar
  83. Friedman, D. E., and Medway, F. J. (1987). Effects of varying performance sets and outcome on the expectations, attributions, and persistence of boys with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 312–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Galton, F. (1883). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. New York: Dutton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Galton, F. (1892). Hereditary genius ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  86. Garrett, M. K., and Crump, D. W. (1980). Peer acceptance, teacher preference, and self-appraisal of social status among learning disabled students. Learning Disability Quarterly, 3, 42–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gerber, P. J., and Zinkgraf, S. A. (1982). A comparative study of social-perceptual ability in learning disabled and non-handicapped students. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 374–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Goldstein, D., and Dundon, W. D. (1986). Affect and cognition in learning disabilities. In S. J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of cogni-Live, social, and neuropsychological aspects of learning disabilities (Vol. 2, pp. 233–249 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  89. Gouze, K. R. (1987). Attention and social problem solving as correlates of aggression in preschool males. Journal ofAbnormal Child Psychology, 15, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gregory, J. E, Shanahan, T., and Walberg, H. J. (1986). A profile of learning disabled twelfth-graders in regular classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 9, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gresham, F., and Elliott, S. N. (1989). Social skills deficits as a primary learning disability. Journal of Learning Disability, 22, 120–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gresham, E. M., and Reschly, D. J. (1986). Acceptance of mainstreamed learning disabled children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 9, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Guncharri, C., Phelps, E., and Selman, R. (1984). Development of interpersonal understanding: A longitudinal and comparative study of normal and disturbed youths. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 26–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Halms, A. A., and Herrman, L. P. (1989). Social cognitive skills and behavioural adjustment of delinquent adolescents in treatment. Journal of Adolescence, 12, 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hall, C. W., and Richmond, B. O. (1985). Non-verbal communication, self-esteem and interpersonal relations of LD and nonLD students. Exceptional Child, 32, 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hamlett, K. W., Pellegrini, D. W., and Conners, C. K. (1987). An investigation of executive processes in the problem-solving of attention deficit disorder-hyperactive children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 12, 227–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Harris, K. R. (1990). Developing self-regulated learners: The role of private speech and self-instructions. Educational Psychologist, 25, 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hartmann, H., Kris, E., and Lowenstein, R. (1949). Notes on the theory of aggression. Psychoanalytic Studies of the Child, 3, 9–36.Google Scholar
  99. Heward, W. L., and Orlansky, M. D. (1992). Exceptional children: An introductory survey of special education ( 4th ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  100. Hillyer, K., and Kearney, C. J. (1988). Problems of gifted children. Journal of the Association for the Study of Perception, 21, 10–26.Google Scholar
  101. Holborow, P. L., and Berry, P. S. (1986). Hyperactivity and learning difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 426–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Homey, K. (1945). Our inner conflicts. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  103. Horowitz, E. C. (1981). Popularity, decentering ability and roletaking skills in learning disabled and normal children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 4, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Huesmann, L., and Eron, L. D. (1987). Intellectual functioning and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 232–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Huesmann, L. R. (1987). An information processing model for the development of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hull, J. G., and Bond, C. F., Jr. (1986). Social and behavioral consequences of alcohol consumption and expectancy: A metanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 347–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ingram, R. E., and Kendall, P. C. (1987). The cognitive side of anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 523–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Jackson, S. C., Enright, R. D., and Murdock, J. Y. (1987). Social perception problems in learning disabled youth: Developmental lag versus perceptual deficit. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 361–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Jacobsen, B., Lowery, B., and DuCette, S. (1986). Attributions of learning disabled children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Jensen, A. R. (1980). Bias in mental testing. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  111. Johnson, D. J., and Myklebust, H. R. (1964). Learning disabilities: Educational principles and practices. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  112. Jones, C. J. (1985). Analysis of the self-concepts of handicapped students. Remedial and Special Education, 6, 32–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kahn, M., and Kirk, W. (1968). The concepts of aggression: A review and reformulation. Psychological Record, 18, 559–573.Google Scholar
  114. Kamin, L. (1977). Burt’s IQ data. Science, 195, 246–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kane, M. T., and Kendall, P. C. (1989). Anxiety disorders in children: A multiple-baseline evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral treatment. Behavior Therapy, 20, 499–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kanfer, F. H., Karoly, P., and Newman, A. (1975). Reduction of children’s fear of the dark by competence-related and situational threat-related verbal cues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 251–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kaslow, N. J., Rehm, L. P., and Siegel, A. W. (1984). Social-cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 605–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kauffman, J. M. (1993). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth ( 5th ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  119. Kaufman, A. S., and Kaufmann, N. L. (1983). K-ABC: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  120. Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Childhood depression. In E. J. Mash and R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders (pp. 135–166 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  121. Kendall, P. C. (1985). Toward a cognitive-behavioral model of child psychopathology and a critique of related interventions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 357–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kendler, T. S., Kendler, H. H., and Wells, D. (1960). Reversal and nonreversal shifts in nursery school children. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kistner, J. A., and Osborne, M. (1987). A longitudinal study of LD children’s self evaluations. Learning Disability Quarterly, 10, 258–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kistner, J. A., Osborne, M., and LeVerrier, L. (1988). Causal attributions of learning-disabled children: Developmental patterns and relation to academic progress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Knight-Arest, I. (1984). Communicative effectiveness of learning disabled and normally achieving 10- to 13-year-old boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kuenne, M. K. (1946). Experimental investigation of the relation of language to transposition behavior in young children. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 471–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Landesman-Dwyers, S., and Butterfield, E. C. (1983). Mental retardation: Developmental issues in cognitive and social adaptation. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence, infancy and early childhood ( 2nd ed., pp. 479–519 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  128. Larry, P. v. Riles, 793 F.2d 969 (9th Cir. 1984 ).Google Scholar
  129. Leitenberg, H., Yost, L. W., and Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: Questionnaire development, normative data, and comparisons between children with and without self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 528–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Licht, B. G. (1983). Cognitive-motivational factors that contribute to the achievement of learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 483–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Licht, B. G., Kistner, J. A., Ozkaragoz, T., Shapiro, S., and Clausen, L. (1985). Causal attributions of learning disabled children: Individual differences and their implications for persistence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 208–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lincoln, A., and Chazan, S. (1979). Perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in learning disability children. Journal of Clinical and Child Psychology, 8, 213–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lochman, J. E. (1987). Self-and peer perceptions and attributional biases of aggressive and nonaggressive boys in dyadic interactions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 404–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lochman, J. E., and Wayland, K. K. (1993). Social goals: Relationship to adolescent adjustment and to social problem solving. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 135–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lorenz, K. (1966). On aggression. New York: Harcourt. Luria, A. R. (1959). The directive function of speech in development. Werd, 18, 341–352.Google Scholar
  136. Luria, A. R. (1961). The role of speech in the regulation of normal and abnormal behaviors. New York: Liveright.Google Scholar
  137. Lyon, R., and Watson, B. (1981). Empirically derived subgroups of learning disabled readers: Diagnostic characteristics. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 256–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Margalit, M., and Zak, I. (1984). Anxiety and self-concept of learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 537–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Marsh, H. W. (1988). Causal effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement: A reanalysis of Newman (1984). Journal of Experimental Education, 56, 100–103.Google Scholar
  140. Mash, E. J. (1989). Treatment of child and family disturbance: A behavioral-systems perspective. In E. J. Mash and R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders (pp. 3–36 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  141. Mash, E. J., and Terdal, L. G. (1988). Behavioral assessment of child and family disturbance. In E. J. Mash and L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders ( 2nd ed., pp. 3–65 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  142. Maheady, L., Maitland, G., and Sainato, D. (1984). The interpretation of social interactions by mildly handicapped and non-disabled children. Journal of Special Education, 18, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mahoney, M. J., and Nezworski, M. T. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral approaches to children’s problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 467–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McConaughy, S. H., and Ritter, D. R. (1986). Social competence and behavioral problems of learning disabled boys aged 6–11. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 39–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. McKinney, J. (1984). The search for subtypes of specific learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. McKinney, J., and Forman, S. (1982). Classroom behavior patterns of EMH, LD and EH students. Journal of School Psychology, 20, 271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. McKinney, J. D., McClure, S., and Feagans, L. (1982). Classroom behavior of learning disabled children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. McMahon, R. J., and Wells, K. C. (1989). Conduct disorders. In E. J. Mash and R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders (pp. 73–132 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  149. Meichenbaum, D. (1976). Cognitive-functional approach to cognitive factors as determinants of learning disabilities. In R. M. Knights and S. J. Bakker (Eds.), The neuropsychology of learning disorders: Theoretical approaches (pp. 423–442 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  150. Meichenbaum, D. H., and Goodman, J. (1977). Training impulsive children to talk to themselves: A means of developing self-control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Merrell, K. W. (1990). Differentiating low achieving students and students with learning disabilities: An examination of performances on the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. Journal of Special Education, 24, 296–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Milich, R., and Dodge, K. A. (1984). Social information processing in child psychiatric populations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 471–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Minde, K. (1992). Aggression in preschoolers: Its relation to socialization. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 853–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  155. Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 80, 252–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mischel, W. (1993). Introduction to personality ( 5th ed. ). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  157. Moyer, K. E. (1976). The psychobiology of aggression. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  158. Nasby, W., Hayden, B., and DePaulo, B. M. (1980). Attributional bias among aggressive boys to interpret unambiguous social stimuli as displays of hostility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 459–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (1981). Definitions. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  160. Offord, D. R., and Boyle, M. H. (1989). Ontario Child Health Study: Correlates of disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 856–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Palmer, D. J., Drummond, F., Tollison, P., and Zinkgraff, S. (1982). An attributional investigation of performance outcomes for learning-disabled and normal-achieving pupils. Journal of Special Education, 16, 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pearl, R. (1986). Social cognitive factors in learning-disabled children’s social problems. In S. J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive, social, and neuropsychological aspects of learning disabilities (Vol. 2, pp. 273–294 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  163. Pearl, R., Bryan, T., and Herzog, A. (1990). Resisting or acquiescing to peer pressure to engage in misconduct: Adolescents’ expectations of probable consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 19, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pearl, R., Donahue, M., and Bryan, T. (1986). Social relationships of learning-disabled children. In J. K. Torgesen and B. Y. L. Wong (Eds.), Psychological and educational perspectives on learning disabilities (pp. 194–224 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  165. Perlmutter, B. F. (1986). Personality variables and peer relations of children and adolescents with learning disabilities. In S. J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive, social, and neurological aspects of learning disabilities (Vol. 1, pp. 339–359 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  166. Perlmutter, B. F., Crocker, J., Cordray, D., and Garstecki, D. (1983). Sociometric status and related personality characteristics of mainstreamed learning disabled adolescents. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Perry, D. G., Perry, L. C., and Rasmussen, P. (1986). Cognitive social learning mediators of aggression. Child Development, 57, 700–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rappaport, S. (1966). Personality factors teachers need for relationship structure. In W. Cruikshank (Ed.), The teacher of the brain-injured children. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Reese, H. W. (1962). Verbal mediation as a function of age level. Psychological Bulletin, 59, 502–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Reeve, R. A., and Brown, A. L. (1985). Metacognition reconsidered: Implications for intervention research. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 343–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rehm, L. P. (1977). A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy, 8, 787–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Reynolds, C. R., and Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). Behavior Assessment Schedule for Children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  173. Richard, B. A., and Dodge, K. A. (1982). Social maladjustment and problem solving in school-aged children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 226–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rogers, H., and Saklofske, D. H. (1985). Self-concept, locus of control and performance expectations of learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18, 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rogers, T. B. (1995). The psychological testing enterprise: An introduction. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  176. Rossman, B. B., and Horn, J. C. (1972). Cognitive, motivational and temperamental indicants of creativity and intelligence. Journal of Educational Measurement, 9, 265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rourke, B. P., Young, G. C., and Leenaars, A. A. (1989). A childhood learning disability that predisposes those afflicted to adolescent and adult depression and suicide risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 169–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sattler, J. M. (1992). Assessment of children ( 3rd ed. ). San Diego, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  179. Schneider, M., and Yoshida, R. K. (1988). Interpersonal problem-solving skills and classroom behavioral adjustment in learning-disabled adolescents and comparison peers. Journal of School Psychology, 26, 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Schumaker, J. B., and Hazel, J. S. (1984). Social skills assessment and training for the learning disabled: Who’s on first and what’s on second? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 422–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Schwean Kowalchuk, V. L. (1991). Stylistic variations in requesting: How does the language/leaming disabled adolescent fare? Canadian Journal of Special Education, 7, 61–75.Google Scholar
  182. Schwean Kowalchuk, V. L., and Nostbakken, M. A. (1991). Help seeking: How successful is the learning disabled adolescent? Canadian Journal of Special Education, 6, 1–11.Google Scholar
  183. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  184. Shaywitz, S. E., and Shaywitz, B. A. (1988). Attention deficit disorder: Current perspectives. In J. E Kavanagh and T. J. Truss, Jr. (Eds.), Learning disabilities: Proceedings of the National Joint Conference (pp. 369–546 ). Parkton, MD: York.Google Scholar
  185. Shepard, L., Smith, M. L., and Vojir, C. (1983). Characteristics of pupils identified as learning disabled. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 309–331.Google Scholar
  186. Silver, D. S., and Young, R. D. (1985). Interpersonal problem-solving abilities, peer status, and behavioral adjustment in learning disabled and non-learning-disabled adolescents. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 4, 201–223.Google Scholar
  187. Silverman, R., and Zigmond, N. (1983). Self-concept in learning disabled adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 478–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sisterhen, D. H., and Gerber, P. J. (1989). Auditory, visual, and multisensory nonverbal social perception in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 245–249, 257.Google Scholar
  189. Spafford, C. S., and Grosser, G. S. (1993). The social misperception syndrome in children with learning disabilities: Social causes versus neurological variables. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 178–189, 198.Google Scholar
  190. Spivack, G., Platt, J. J., and Shure, M. B. (1976). The problem solving approach to adjustment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Spivack, G., and Shure, M. B. (1974). Social adjustment of young children: A cognitive approach to solving real-life problems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  191. Steinberg, M. D., and Dodge, K. A. (1983). Attributional bias in aggressive adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1, 312–321.Google Scholar
  192. Sternberg, R. J. (1986). Intelligence applied: Understanding and increasing your intellectual skills. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  193. Stone, A., and Michals, D. (1986). Problem-solving skills in learning-disabled children. In S. J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive, social, and neurological aspects of learning disabilities (Vol. 1, pp. 291–315 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  194. Stone, W. L., and leGreca, A. M. (1984). Comprehension of nonverbal communication: A reexamination of the social competencies of learning-disabled children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 505–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Strauss, A. A., and Lehtinen, L. (1947). Psychopathology and education of the brain-injured child. Vol. 2. Progress in theory and clinic. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  196. Swanson, H. L., and Watson, B. L. (1989). Educational and psychological assessment of exceptional children: Theories, strategies, and applications ( 2nd ed. ). Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  197. Szasz, T. S. (1961). The myth of mental illness: Foundations of a theory of personal conduct. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  198. Tollefson, H., Tracy, D. B., Johnsen, E. P., Buenning, M., Fanner, A., and Barke, C. R. (1982). Attribution patterns of learning disabled adolescents. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 14–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Torgesen, J. K. (1991). Learning disabilities: Historical and conceptual issues. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (pp. 3–37 ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  200. Torgesen, J. K., and Licht, B. G. (1983). The learning disabled child as an inactive learner: Retrospect and prospects. In J. D. McKinney and L. Feagans (Eds.), Current topics in learning disabilities (pp. 184–197 ). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  201. Toro, P. A., and Weisberg, R. P. (1990). A comparison of children with and without learning disabilities on social problem solving skill, school behavior, and family background. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 115–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Vellutino, F. R. (1986). Commentary: Linguistic and cognitive correlates of learning disability: Reactions to three reviews. In S. J. Ceci (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive, social, and neurological aspects of learning disabilities (Vol. 1, pp. 317–335 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  203. Voelker, S. L., Carter, R. A., Sprague, D. J., Gdowski, C. L., and Lachar, D. (1989). Developmental trends in memory and metamemory in children with attention deficit disorder. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 14, 75–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge: MIT Press. (original work published 1934 )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Weener, P. (1981). On comparing learning disabled and regular classroom children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 227–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Adult-child interaction as a source of self-regulation in children. In S. K. Yussen (Ed.), The growth of reflection in children (pp. 69–97 ). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  207. Winnie, P. H., Woodlands, M. H., and Wong, B. Y. L. (1982). Comparability of self-concept among learning disabled, normal and gifted students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 470–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Winzer, M., Rogow, S., and Charlotte, D. (1987). Exceptional children in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  209. Wong, B. Y. L. (1991). The relevance of metacognition to learning disabilities. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (pp. 231–258 ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  210. Wong, B. Y. L., and Wong, R. (1980). Role-taking skills in normally achieving and learning disabled children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 3, 3–11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicki L. Schwean
    • 1
  • Donald H. Saklofske
    • 2
  1. 1.Department for the Education of Exceptional ChildrenUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations