Conflicts in Adjustment

World War II Prisoners of War and Their Families
  • Murray M. Bernstein
Part of the The Plenum Series on Stress and Coping book series (SSSO)

Abstract

Regardless of its cause, trauma impacts upon the victim’s self-image. Professionals in mental health have identified various patterns of coping with forms of trauma that range from denial of the severity of the event to overcompensation (deWind, 1984; LaCoursierre, Godfrey, & Ruby, 1986; Tanaka, 1988). Various stages of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been identified as a function of the types of defenses engaged by the individual (Fairbanks & Nicholson, 1986). For example, loss of control relating to trauma leads to intrusive thoughts and the repetition of traumatic events. A “dominate” continual coping mechanism for trauma has been attributed to denial and emotional numbing. The result for the victim is a state of denial of one aspect of the traumatic event and the experience of intrusive thoughts regarding another aspect of the same event.

Keywords

Traumatic Event Marital Conflict Intrusive Thought Emotional Numbing Community Service Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Center for POW Studies. (1976). Medical Care Repatriated Prisoners of War: Manual_ for Physicians. San Diego: Navy Medical Network Unit.Google Scholar
  3. Dent, O. P., Tennant, C. C., and Goulston, K. J. (1987). Precursors of depression in World War II veterans 40 years after the war. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175 (8), 486–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. deWind, E. (1984). Some implications of former massive traumatization upon the actual analytic process. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 65(3), 273–281.Google Scholar
  5. Danieli, Y. (1985). In the treatment and prevention of long-term effects and intergenerational transmission of victimization: A lesson from Holocaust survivors and their children. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake (pp. 309–313 ) New York, Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  6. Fairbank, J. A., and Nicholson, R. A. (1987). Theoretical and empirical issues in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam vet. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43 (1), 44–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Figley, Charles R. (Ed.) (1978). Stress disorders among Vietnam veterans: Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  8. Figley, Charles R. (Ed.) (1985). Trauma and its wake: The study and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  9. Hall, J. M. (1981). The aging survivor of the Holocaust: Father hurt and father hunger. The effect of a survivor father’s waning years on his son. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14 (2), 211–223.Google Scholar
  10. Hall, R. C., and Malone, P. T. (1976). Psychiatric effect of prolonged Asian captivity: A two year follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133 (7), 786–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hogancamp, V. E., and Figley, C. R. (1983). War: Bringing the battle home. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  12. Keating, N. C., and Cole, L. (1980). Changes in the housewife role after retirement. Gerontologist, 20(1), 84–88.Google Scholar
  13. LaCoursierre, R. B., Godfrey, K. E., and Ruby, L. M. (1986). Traumatic neurosis in the etiology of alcoholism: Vietnam combat and other trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137 (8), 966–968.Google Scholar
  14. Mullis, M. R. (1984). Vietnam: The human fallout. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 22 (2), 22–26.Google Scholar
  15. Mutran, E., and Reitzes, D. C. (1980). Retirement identity and well-being: Realignment of role relationships. Journal of Gerontology, 36 (6), 733–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rosenheck, R. (1986). Impact of post-traumatic stress disorder of World War II on the next generation. Journal ofNervous and Mental Disease, 174 (6), 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Scaturo, D. J., and Hardoby, W J. (1988). Psychotherapy with traumatized Vietnam combatants: An overview of individual, group and family treatment modalities. Military Medicine, 153 (5), 262–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sigal, J. D. (1976). Effects of paternal exposure to prolonged stress on the mental health of the spouse and children. Canadian Psychiatric Association, 21 (3), 169–172.Google Scholar
  19. Tanaka, K. (1988). Development of a tool for assessing post-trauma response. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 11 (1), 350–356.Google Scholar
  20. Veterans Administration Office of Planning and Program Evaluation (1983). POW: Study of former prisoners of war. Washington, DC:Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murray M. Bernstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social WorkZablocki Veterans Administration Medical CenterMil­waukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations