Children of Dutch War Sailors and Civilian Resistance Veterans

  • Wybrand Op Den Velde
Part of the The Plenum Series on Stress and Coping book series (SSSO)

Abstract

Nowadays it is generally acknowledged that the Nazi persecution, as well as other extreme experiences during World War II, left deep mental scars. There is also a growing realization that children of traumatized parents can struggle with more or less severe psychological problems. Albeit initially piecemeal, around the end of the 1960s, (auto)biographical and scientific publications about the “second generation” began to appear. The majority of the publications relates to survivors of Nazi concentration camps, in particular to Jewish survivors (Chapters 1–3). The literature is considerably less voluminous about the offspring of war sailors and former civilian Resistance fighters. Nevertheless, physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers come in contact with these now adult children regularly. Their general impression is that the problems and complaints of these “children” are closely associated with the experiences of their parents during World War II.

Keywords

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Concentration Camp Guilt Feeling Family Secret Nazi Concentration Camp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Askevold, F. (1980). The war sailor syndrome. Danish Medical Bulletin, 27, 220–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barocas, H. A., Barocas, C. B. (1979). Wounds of fathers: the next generation of Holocaust victims. International Review of Psychoanalysis, 6, 331–341.Google Scholar
  3. Bastiaans, J. (1957). Psychosomatische gevolgen van onderdrukking en verzet [Psychosomatic aftereffects of oppression and resistance]. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Noordhollandse Uitgeversmaatschappij.Google Scholar
  4. Coopmans, M. J. A. M. (1993). Separatie-individuatie-problematiek van een naoorlogse generatie oorlogsslachtoffers [Separation-individuation problems in the second generation of war-victims]. Delft, the Netherlands: Eburon.Google Scholar
  5. Haenen, M. A., Van den Hout, M. A., and Merckelbach, H. (1994). Psychische probleman bij kinderen van oorlogsgetroffenen [Psychological problems in children of war victims]. Unpublished manuscript, Heerlen, the Netherlands: Buitengewone Pensioenraad.Google Scholar
  6. Hartvig, P. (1977). Krigsseilersyndromet [The war sailor syndrome]. Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrif 29, 302–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keilson, H. (1992). Sequential traumatization in children. Jerusalem: Magnus Press.Google Scholar
  8. Krystal, H. (Ed.) (1968). Massive psychic trauma. New York: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  9. Major, E. F. (1993, June). Transgenerational effects of different war experiences. Paper, presented at the Third European Conference on Traumatic Stress, Bergen, Norway, 1993.Google Scholar
  10. Op den Velde, W. (1985). Posttraumatische stressstoornis als laat gevolg van verzetsdeelname [Posttraumatic stress disorder as a late effect of resistance participation]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 129, 834–838.Google Scholar
  11. Op den Velde, W., Aarts, P. G. H., and De Graaf, T. K. (1991). Kinderen van verzetsdeelnemers [Children of resistance participants]. In W. Wolters (Ed.), Posttraumatische stress bij kinderen en adolescenten [Posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents] (pp. 157–178 ). Baarn, the Netherlands: Ambo.Google Scholar
  12. Op den Velde, W and De Graaf, T. K. (1985). Psychische problemen bij kinderen van voormalige verzetsdeelnemers [Psychological problems in children of former resistance participants]. ICODO-info, 2, 39–51.Google Scholar
  13. Op den Velde, W., Hovens, J. E., Aarts, P. G. H., Frey-Wouters, E., Falger, P. R. J., Van Duijn, H., and De Groen, J. H. M. (1996). The prevalence and course of posttraumatic stress disorder in Dutch veterans of the civilian Resistance during World War II: An overview. Psychological Reports, 78, 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Op den Velde, W., Frey-Woutrs, E., and Pelser, H. E. (1994). The price of heroism: Veterans from the Dutch Resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 8, 335–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Op den Velde, W., Hovens, J. E., Falger, P. R. J., De Groen, J. H. M. Van Duijn, H., Lasschuit, L. J., and Schouten, E. G. W. (1993). PTSD in Dutch Resistance veterans from World War II. In J. P. Wilson and B. Rafael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes (pp. 219–230 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Op den Velde, W, Koerselman, G. E and Aarts, P. G. H. (1994). Countertransference and World War II Resistance fighters: Issues in diagnosis and assessment. In J. P. Wilson and J. D. Lindy (Eds.), Countertransference in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (pp. 308–327 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Schreuder, J. N., Van der Ploeg, H. M., Van Tiel-Kadiks, G. W., Van Mook, J., and Bramsen, I. (1993). Psychische klachten en kenmerken bij poliklinische patiënten van de naoorlogse generatie [Psychological complaints and characteristics of outpatients of the postwar generation]. Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie, 4, 227–241.Google Scholar
  18. Schreuder, J. N., and Van Tiel-Kadiks, G. W (1994). Psychopathologische klachten bij kinderen van oorlogsslachtoffers [Psychopathological complaints in children of war victims]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 138, 641–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Tas, J. (1946). Psychische stoornissen in concentratiekampen en bij teruggekeerden [Psychical disorders among inmates of concentration camps and repatriates]. Maandblad voor de Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 1, 143–150.Google Scholar
  20. Reprinted in A. Ladan, H. Groen-Prakken, and A. Stufkens (Eds.), Traumatisation and war. The Dutch annual of psychoanalysis, 1995–1996 (pp. 16–24). Lisse, the Netherlands, Swets and Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  21. Weisaeth, L., and Eitinger, L. (1993). Posttraumatic stress phenomena: common themes across wars, disasters, and traumatic events. In J. P. Wilson and B. Rafael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes (pp. 69–77 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wybrand Op Den Velde
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatrySaint Lucas Andreas HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations